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World War I Chapter 6, Lesson 3.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I Chapter 6, Lesson 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I Chapter 6, Lesson 3

2 Lesson EQs What were the causes and effects of World War I?
Who were the Central and Allied Powers? What the issues of isolationism? Why did the United States get involved in the war? What were the technological advances in warfare as they affected society? What was the impact at home and abroad of the U.S. involvement in World War I? Lesson EQs

3 A Gathering Storm Rivalries had developed among European nations.
Countries were competing for… Military power Ownership of land New land meant opportunities for trade, greater wealth, and power. Strong feelings of nationalism, a love of one’s country and the desire to have that country free from the control of others. A Gathering Storm

4 A Gathering Storm continued…
European nations formed alliances, or an agreement among nations to defend one another. Allied Powers: Great Britain, France, Russia, Serbia, and Belgium Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey A Gathering Storm continued…

5 What started World War I?
1914 Austria-Hungary was in control of land that Serbia believed it owned. A Serbian nationalist assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne. What started World War I?

6 Fighting begins in Europe
Russia worried about its trade route from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea being threatened. Russia prepared to protect its trade route and help Serbia defeat Austria- Hungary. Black Sea Mediterranean Fighting begins in Europe

7 Fighting Begins… Germany, allied with Austria-Hungary.
Germany demanded that Russia not fight. Russia did not listen. Germany declared war on Russia. Germany asked France if they were going to support Russia. France did not give a clear answer. Germany declared war on France. Germany was fighting in two places. Russia on the east France on the west Fighting Begins…

8 In order to reach France, Germany needed to cross Belgium.
Germany asked the Belgium King for permission to pass through. The King refused. Therefore, Germany invaded Belgium. Great Britain is and ally of Belgium, so they declared war on Germany. Fighting continued…

9 Soldiers dug a system of trenches that faced each other and could extend hundreds of miles.
Barbed wire protected the front of each trench. The area between was called “no-man’s land”. Soldiers ate slept in the trenches. Trenches were often flooded and filled with rats. Very often Poison gas was thrown into the trenches. Trench Warfare

10 The US Enters the War At first the US stayed out of WWI.
Practiced a policy of isolationism, remaining neutral and letting the countries handle their own affairs. Many European immigrants living in the US did not want the country to take sides. The US Enters the War

11 The US Enters the War May 7, 1915
A German submarined torpedoed and sank the British steamship, Lusitania. 100+ US citizens were killed President Woodrow Wilson wrote a letter to the German government objecting to attacks on non-military ships. The US Enters the War

12 January, Arthur Zimmerman translated a German telegram sent to Mexico, asking Mexico to enter the war on the side of the Central Powers. Germany promised to help Mexico win back Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona in return for their support in the war. Zimmerman Note

13 February 1917—Germany ordered its submarines to attack any ships suspected of carrying weapons to the Allied Powers. March 1917—Germany sank three American- owned trading ships. April 6, 1917—US declared war on the Central Powers. The US Enters the War…

14 What advantage did the US military have over its enemies in World War I?
It was not weary and wounded from three years of fighting. The arrival of American troops increased the fighting strength of the Allied Powers. 4 million + American soldiers, sailors, and marines fought in the war. America at War

15 Eddie Rickenbacker—US fighter pilot; “Ace”; shot down 22 German planes and 4 observation balloons.
Dog fight—planes fought each other in the air. Alvin C. York—sharp shooter; used a rifle and knocked out 35 German machine guns; resulting in 132 German prisoners. Heroes of World War I

16 New Technologies Airplanes dropped bombs and fired machine guns.
Tanks by the British Submarines Germany used poison gas Burned the lungs and blinded eyes Eventually both sides used poison gas Gas masks were developed. New Technologies

17 War’s Impact at Home Patriotic song Over There
They gave money to the Red Cross. Posters “I Want You” Fewer men to work the farms caused a food shortage. War gardens in parks and town squares The government set up the Food Administration encouraged people to eat less, conserve food Women went to work in the factories, producing weapons, tanks, and ammunition. African Americans also took over many jobs. War’s Impact at Home

18 War Ends The US helped turn the tide of the war.
November 11, 1918 the Central Powers surrendered. Nov. 11 Veterans Day “The war to end all wars”—because no one could imagine it ever happening again. War Ends

19 The US and the Peace Process
Jan. 1919—Pres. Wilson and other Allied leaders met in Versailles, France. Peace treaty Pres. Wilson suggested an international organization be formed to prevent wars—League of Nations. Treaty of Versailles officially ended WWI. punished the Central Powers, demanded Germany pay heavy fines and not rebuild its army. Created the League of Nations. The US did not join the League of Nations. The wanted to return to a policy of isolationism which only lasted about 20 years. The US and the Peace Process

20 Additional Information
In the years after World War I, the economies of the countries in Europe suffered. Only the United States did well economically after the war. Which factor influenced this change in the world economy? Debt that Germany owed the United States What is Imperialism? When one country takes over another country Additional Information

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