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Students with Learning Disabilities

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Presentation on theme: "Students with Learning Disabilities"— Presentation transcript:

1 Students with Learning Disabilities
Chapter 4

2 What is the History of Learning Disabilities?
Foundational Phase ( ) Transition Phase ( ) Integration Phase ( ) Term “learning disability” coined Current Phase (1974-present) Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

3 What is the IDEA 04 Definition of Learning Disabilities
What is the IDEA 04 Definition of Learning Disabilities? (continued on the next slide) Specific learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

4 What is the IDEA 04 Definition of Learning Disabilities? (continued)
Specific learning disability does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

5 How Do the IDEA04 and NJCLD Definitions of Learning Disabilities Compare?
Similarities to IDEA 04 Definition Both define learning disabilities as involving deficits in a number of academic and cognitive areas. Differences from IDEA 04 Definition NJCLD definition eliminated psychological processing deficit requirement. Redefined exclusion aspect of IDEA 04 definition stating that a learning disability cannot be the result of other disabilities or extrinsic factors, but that they can coexist. Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

6 What is the Prevalence of Learning Disabilities?
5.24% of students 6-17 received services for learning disabilities in 2005. Largest area of IDEA 04 disability - 45% of all served under IDEA 04 have a learning disability. Three to four times more boys receive services for learning disabilities than girls. African Americans are underrepresented in this category (and over-represented in the intellectual disabilities category). Prevalence by state varies. Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

7 What are Causes and Possible Characteristics of Learning Disabilities?
No known cause Possible causes: Neurological Genetic Environmental Prenatal Perinatal Postnatal Characteristics Hyperactivity Perceptual-motor impairments Emotional Lability Coordination deficits Attention disorders Impulsivity Memory & thinking disorders Specific learning disabilities Speech & hearing disorders Equivocal neurological signs Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

8 What are Some Common Academic Deficits?
Reading Phonological awareness, vocabulary, comprehension Mathematics Calculation, math facts and concepts, problem-solving, word problems, math anxiety Writing and Written Expression Handwriting, spelling, written expression Expressive and Receptive Language Speaking, listening, understanding, following directions Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

9 Effects of Word Substitutions on Reading Comprehension (Figure 4.2)
Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

10 Writing Sample Showing Several Problems (Figure 4.3)
Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

11 What Other Deficits Should Be Considered?
Cognitive-Related Characteristics Attention, memory, strategy use, metacognition Social and Emotional Characteristics Social skills deficits, learned helplessness, low self-concept, anxiety Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

12 How are Students with Learning Disabilities Identified?
Response to Intervention Three-tier model to identify students who might have a learning disability Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

13 Three-tiered Response to Intervention Model (Figure 4.5)
Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

14 What is the Severe Discrepancy Formula?
Severe discrepancy between intelligence and achievement to identify individuals with learning disabilities* Example: IQ = 90 or above and Significant deficit in Achievement Score (in reading, math, spelling, handwriting, listening, speaking, etc.) *Not required by IDEA 04 Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

15 What Do I Teach Students with Learning Disabilities?
Knowledge Declarative knowledge – facts Procedural knowledge – how to learn Conditional knowledge – when and why Reading Phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension Written language Prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, final draft Mathematics Problem solving, computation, self-regulation, strategy use Study Skills Listening, note taking, time management, comprehension, test taking, memory strategies, textbook usage Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

16 How Do I Teach Students with Learning Disabilities?
Task Analysis Breaking a task down into simpler components to be taught in sequence Direct Instruction Daily review, presentation, guided practice, independent practice, and weekly and monthly reviews Strategies Instruction Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

17 What is Strategies Instruction?
Cognitive Strategies Deliberate, planned activities used to acquire information or knowledge Example: mnemonics, acronyms, acrostics, keyword methods Metacognitive Strategies Self-regulatory strategies to plan, monitor and check outcomes Mnemonics Devices, like rhymes or songs, to help remember information Attribution Retraining Teaching students to attribute success to using effective strategies Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

18 What Procedures can be Effective with English Language Learners?
Using visuals Implementing cooperative learning Setting up peer tutors Allowing use of the native language to organize thoughts Providing sufficient time to use language Focusing on vocabulary to teach concepts Providing multi-sensory teaching Using supplementary materials Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

19 What are Considerations for the Instructional Environment?
Physical arrangements One-to-one instruction Instructional grouping Small group, whole class, peer tutoring Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

20 What Types of Instructional Technology can be Effective?
Word processing Speech recognition Digital voice recorders Computer programs Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

21 What are Some Considerations for the General Education Teacher?
Consider Using Accommodations Adaptations Parallel outcomes An overlapping curriculum Collaborate Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

22 Accommodations vs. Adaptations
Changes based on student’s needs in how information is presented by the teacher or how understanding is demonstrated Levels the playing field for the student Adaptations Changes the methods, materials, or concepts being taught based on the student’s needs Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

23 Summary Though there is no known cause of learning disabilities, there are many techniques and strategies that teachers can use to help students identified with learning disabilities acquire knowledge and skills and to experience success. Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

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