IDEA Definition of Specific Learning Disability (SLD) (p.152) General. The term means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.
Federal SLD Definition cont. Disorders not included. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. Source: http://www.ideapractices.org/law/regulations/i ndex.php (Federal Register March 12, 1999) http://www.ideapractices.org/law/regulations/i ndex.php
The National Joint Committee for Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) definition (Top pg. 154) A general term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities. These disorders are intrinsic to the individual, presumed to be due to central nervous system dysfunction, and may occur across the life span.
NJCLD Definition Cont. Problems in self-regulatory behaviors, social perception, and social interaction m ay exist with learning disabilities but do not by themselves constitute a learning disability. Although LD may occur concomitantly with other handicapping conditions or with extrinsic influences, they are not the result of those conditions or influences.
In-class participation List 2 areas in which the two definitions of Specific Learning Disabilities (Federal IDEA definition, pg. 152 & NJCLD definition pg. 154) are similar
Similarities in Definitions (p. 154) 1. Presumption of central nervous system dysfunction 2. Seen in listening, speaking, reading, writing, and mathematics 3. Excludes other disabilities or influences as primary reason for the disability
Differences in Definitions NJCLD doesn’t use some terms used in federal definition that are difficult to define Basic Psychological processes MBD Dyslexia Perceptual disabilities NJCLD clarifies lifelong condition
Characteristics (p. 162-165) Interindividual and intraindividual differences Academic Deficits – reading, written language, spoken language, math Perceptual, perceptual-motor, and general coordination problems