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1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2003 Learners with Learning Disabilities Chapter 5 (begins pg. 146) This multimedia product and its contents are protected.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2003 Learners with Learning Disabilities Chapter 5 (begins pg. 146) This multimedia product and its contents are protected."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2003 Learners with Learning Disabilities Chapter 5 (begins pg. 146) This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2003 Topics Definition Prevalence Causes Assessment Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics Educational Considerations Service Delivery Models Early Intervention Transition

3 3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2003 Definition Factors to consider in definitions of learning disabilities (p.150-154) Presumption of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction (not necessarily damage) Psychological processing disorders (organizing & interpreting stimuli, not in receiving stimulus input) IQ-achievement discrepancy

4 IDEA Definition of Specific Learning Disability (SLD) (p.152) General. The term means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.

5 Federal SLD Definition cont. Disorders not included. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. Source: ndex.php (Federal Register March 12, 1999) ndex.php

6 The National Joint Committee for Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) definition (Top pg. 154) A general term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities. These disorders are intrinsic to the individual, presumed to be due to central nervous system dysfunction, and may occur across the life span.

7 NJCLD Definition Cont. Problems in self-regulatory behaviors, social perception, and social interaction m ay exist with learning disabilities but do not by themselves constitute a learning disability. Although LD may occur concomitantly with other handicapping conditions or with extrinsic influences, they are not the result of those conditions or influences.

8 In-class participation List 2 areas in which the two definitions of Specific Learning Disabilities (Federal IDEA definition, pg. 152 & NJCLD definition pg. 154) are similar

9 Similarities in Definitions (p. 154) 1. Presumption of central nervous system dysfunction 2. Seen in listening, speaking, reading, writing, and mathematics 3. Excludes other disabilities or influences as primary reason for the disability

10 Differences in Definitions NJCLD doesn’t use some terms used in federal definition that are difficult to define Basic Psychological processes MBD Dyslexia Perceptual disabilities NJCLD clarifies lifelong condition

11 4 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2003 Prevalence (p. 155) 5 to 6 percent of students aged 6 to 17 identified. More than half of students identified as needing special education are in LD category Prevalence has doubled since the 1976–1977 school year Overidentification or social-cultural factors? Boys outnumber girls 3 to 1 (questioned: referral bias?)

12 5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2003 Causes: (p.155-158) Advanced technologies (CAT, fMRI, PET scans) are used to better identify neurological bases of structural and functional differences in the brain, but are not definitive 3 possible types of causes 1. Genetic factors (p.157) 2. Teratogenic factors (agents such as FAS, lead) 3. Medical factors (e.g., neurological damage), p.158

13 6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2003 Assessment (p. 158-161) Standardized achievement assessment Formative assessment (p. 159-161) Criterion referenced testing Curriculum-based assessment (CBA) Informal assessment Informal Reading Inventory Error Analysis Authentic assessment (p. 161), real life situations (e.g., written paper vs. Praxis I test) Portfolios (samples of work done over time)

14 Characteristics (p. 162-165) Interindividual and intraindividual differences Academic Deficits – reading, written language, spoken language, math Perceptual, perceptual-motor, and general coordination problems

15 Characteristics Disorders of Attention (ADHD Chp. 6) Memory Deficits Poor metacognition Social-emotional difficulties Motivational issues

16 Teaching students with LD (p. 169-175) Accommodations/modifications Assistive Technology Cognitive Strategy Instruction Direct Instruction r/

17 10 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2003 Service Delivery Models (p. 175) Most students served in general education classrooms Full continuum of placement options must be available LRE Collaboration, co-teaching, consultation, and other models are used

18 11 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2003 Early Intervention (p. 176) Young children rarely identified. Typically don’t engage in academic tasks Variation in maturation levels Some professionals favor early identification Use pre-academic skills as predictors such as letter, shape, and color recognition

19 12 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2003 Transition to Adulthood (p. 177-182) Often “un” or “under” employed Factors related to successful transition (see list p. 180) Secondary programming Functional skills Work-study Basic skills Tutorial (inappropriate role for LD teacher) Learning strategies Co-teaching Consultation

20 Transition to Adulthood Postsecondary Programming Section 504 of Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973 or American with Disabilities Act applies Reasonable Accommodations Otherwise Qualified

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