INCLUDESDOES NOT INCLUDE Perceptual handicaps Brain injury Minimal brain dysfunction Dyslexia Developmental aphasia (Raymond, 2012) Learning problems as a result of visual, motor, hearing disabilities Mental retardation Emotional disturbance Environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage IDEA 2004 Definition A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations.
Assistive Technology Act, 2004: “Any item, piece of equipment or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability” (Bouck, Flanagan, Miller & Bassette, 2012).
Digital text book (Bouck et al., 2012) Graphic organizing and cognitive software (Cobb, nd) Speech-to-text or text-to-speech software (Forgrave, 2002) Math software and grammar checks (Haq & Elhoweris, 2013) iPod Touch or iPad (Cumming & Rodriguez, 2013) Laptops (Eden, Shamir & Fershtman, 2011)
Digital text book Allows students reading below grade level to have access to content knowledge Graphic organizing software Allows students organize thoughts for writing prompts Grammar checks Helps students revise written work
Speech-to-text and laptops Allows students with fine motor, handwriting, OT difficulties to still share ideas and complete assignments, as well as increase spelling skills Text-to-speech software Correct reading errors and allow access to content knowledge Math software Software for learning multiplication tables, money counting, and other skills (Haq & Elhoweris, 2013)
Kidspiration- electronic graphic-organizing computer based story mapping software used to teach the nine story grammar components. The story grammar components are title, characters, setting, time, problem, solution, outcome, reaction, and theme (Wade, Boon & Spencer, 2010). Why? 80% of students with SLD struggle with reading comprehension Often fail to monitor and assess comprehension skills while reading Student demographics-Title I school; two 3 rd grade and one 4 th grade student; all SLD and received reading, spelling and writing in self- contained class; all other subjects in general ed Outcome-The 3 students in the test group had increases of 44%, 52%, 63% from their baseline scores in comprehension of the story grammar components Limitations: Very small test group (Wade et al., 2010)
Laptops and spelling skills for students with learning disabilities Why? Spelling deficits can be caused by difficulty with phonological processing, slow learning pace, reading and writing difficulties, and many others. Student demographics- 93 Israeli middle school students aged 13 to 16; all students LD and in classes of 10 to 13 students; inclusion in general education where appropriate; 54 students were in the experiment group and 39 in the control group Students in experimental group significantly improved spelling skills as opposed to the control group (Eden et al., 2011)
Not just for instructional academics Physical impairments Behavioral modifications Life skills Improve quality of life
Overall, there are positive outcomes to using AT in conjunction with instruction in the classroom. Just as with any other teaching strategy, if ever an AT does not work for the student, then the use of that particular AT should be revisited and changed if needed.
Bouck, E., Flanagan, S., Miller B., & Bassette, L. (2012). Technology in action: Rethinking everyday technology as assistive technology to meet students’ IEP goals. Journal of Special Education Technology, 27(4), 47-57. Cobb, A. (n.d.). Assistive technology: Enhancing the life skills of students with learning disabilities. Distance Learning. 8(4), 47-57. Cumming, T., & Rodriguez, C. (2013). Integrating the iPad into language arts instruction for students with disabilities: Engagement and perspectives. Journal of Special Education Technology, 28(4), 43-52. Eden, S., Shamir, A., & Fershtman, M. (2011) The effect of using laptops on the spelling skills of students with learning disabilities. Educational Media International, 48(4), 249-259. Forgrave, K. (2002). Assistive technology: empowering students with disabilities. Clearing House, 75(3), 122-126. Haq, F., & Elhoweris, H. (2013). Using assistive technology to enhance the learning of basic literacy skills for students with learning disabilities. International Journal of Social Sciences and Education, 3(4), 880-885. Raymond, E. (2012). Learners with mild disabilities: A characteristics approach. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. Wade, E., Boon, R., & Spencer, V. (2010). Use of Kidspiration software to enhance the reading comprehension of story grammar components for elementary-age students with specific learning disabilities. Learning disabilities: A contemporary journal, 8(2), 31-41.