Presentation on theme: "American Foreign Policy How September 11, 2001 Affected U.S. Foreign Policy."— Presentation transcript:
American Foreign Policy How September 11, 2001 Affected U.S. Foreign Policy
Early U.S. Foreign Policy Monroe Doctrine (1823) –American continents were no longer open to European colonization –Any effort to extend European political influence into the New World would be considered by the United States "as dangerous to our peace and safety.“ –The United States would not interfere in European wars or internal affairs, and expected Europe to stay out of American affairs.
Rise of American Imperialism and Colonialism Manifest Destiny (1840’s-90’s) –It was the providential mission of the U.S. to extend itself over the frontier, claiming it as a god-given, national right –While the Monroe Doctrine essentially ended European expansion in the Western Hemisphere (but not American expansion) –Used to justify westward expansion of U.S., annexation of Texas, U.S. involvement in the Philippines, and Spanish-American War –U.S. rises as a world power following the Spanish- American War
World War I Prior to WWI, the U.S. experienced a period of isolationism –Many Americans, both in the public at large and in Washington, did not want to get involved in World War I Woodrow Wilson leads U.S. to war Post WWI - League of Nations –While the League of Nations was an enormous failure, it was the precursor to United Nations
Rebirth of Isolationism Following the end of World War I, the U.S. drops back into a period of isolationism –Domestic problems dominate, and foreign policy is very limited until World War II –The Great Depression was the focus of the nation and its leaders Public opinion was focused on problems at home, rather than the rise of dangerous dictatorships in Europe
Post World War II Foreign Policy: The Cold War Containment (1947) –Formally part of foreign policy in 1947 through NSC- 68 –Containment was a strategy to limit and prevent the expansion of the Soviet Union and communism –Kennan called for ``a policy of firm containment, designed to confront the Russians with unalterable counter-force at every point where they show signs of encroaching upon the interests of a peaceful and stable world."
Post World War II Foreign Policy: The Cold War Marshall Plan (1947) –Economic recovery plan for Europe, following the end of World War II –Two main objectives: Rebuild Europe physically and economically Strengthen Western Europe to protect against the Soviet Union McCarthyism and the Red Scare (Early 1950’s) –Fear of Communism within American borders –Feeds fear of communism spreading elsewhere
Post World War II Foreign Policy: The Cold War Domino Theory (1950’s-60’s) –Notion that if one country falls to communism, it will spread to all surrounding nations –Led to U.S. involvement in Korea and Vietnam Failure of the U.S. in Vietnam –Domino Theory fails –Containment loses some of its acceptance in Washington
Cold War Heats Up, Burns Out Cold War dominates U.S. foreign policy from the end of WWII until the fall of the Soviet Union –Escalation of military size, weapons arsenals Fall of Soviet Union, Berlin Wall comes down –Marks the end of nearly 50 years of preparing for war with one enemy No one left to fight
Post Cold War Foreign Policy Democratic Peace Theory –Originated in 70’s, but popularized in late 80’s Began to influence foreign policy in early 1990’s –No two democratic nations have ever fought a war This theory is at the center of U.S. push for democratization –Spreading democracy will promote peace –Spreading democracy will lead to higher levels of trade between nations
Foreign Policy in 90’s Democratic Peace Powell Doctrine –For any engagement: We must have exhausted all other options (diplomacy before force) There must be a national security risk by the target Have a Clear Objective Use Overwhelming Force There must be strong public support for action Have a Clearly-defined Exit Strategy
Post September 11th 9/11 signifies a drastic shift in foreign policy –War on Terrorism Enemy unclear Bush Doctrine –First-strike, pre-emptive war is legitimate means for preventing future threats to national security
War In Iraq Bush Doctrine markedly different than Powell Doctrine –Bush vs. Bush debate Bush Doctrine is dramatically different than previous Bush administration foreign policy –Did war in Iraq meet the requirements of the Powell Doctrine?
Other Effects of September 11th Rebirth of patriotism –Incredibly high levels of presidential approval American cynicism – no evidence to support claims that cynicism has declined Civil Liberties – American civil liberties have been seriously threatened by new legislation aimed at curtailing terrorism (PATRIOT Act) –Suspected terrorists have been denied traditional civil liberties and due process of law Military tribunals, unlimited detainment, deportation