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The Respiratory System

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Presentation on theme: "The Respiratory System"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Respiratory System
Involves the exchange of gases between cells, blood and the atmosphere

2 Types of Respiration Pulmonary ventilation External respiration
inspiration expiration External respiration occurs in the lungs Internal respiration occurs in the tissues

3 Nose, Pharynx,Larynx,Trachea, Bronchial Tree, Lungs
Organs of Respiration Nose, Pharynx,Larynx,Trachea, Bronchial Tree, Lungs

4 NOSE Moistens, warms, and filters air Houses olfactory receptors
Serves as resonating chamber for speech Nasal septum divides nasal cavity

5 PALATE Serves to separate the nasal cavity from the oral cavity
Hard palate Soft palate Uvula

6 PHARYNX Nasopharynx - upper portion, region above the soft palate
Oropharynx - middle portion, area behind the oral cavity Laryngopharynx - lower portion, area below the epiglottis


8 LARYNX Functions to prevent food or fluid from entering the respiratory system during swallowing and allows air flow during breathing Production of sound is secondary function

9 Larynx Unpaired cartilages - thyroid, cricoid, epiglottis
Paired cartilage - arytenoid, corniculate, cuneiform Vocal folds Glottis


11 TRACHEA Tubelike structure leading from the larynx to bronchial tree
Consists of smooth muscle and “C” shaped hyaline cartilage rings Lined with psuedostratified ciliated columnar epithelium Mucociliary escalator

12 BRONCHIAL TREE Includes a right and left primary bronchus which divides to produce secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi and bronchioles Terminal bronchioles branch into respiratory bronchioles which divide into alveolar ducts that connect to alveoli

13 ALVEOLI Functional unit of the lungs where gas exchange occurs (300 million) Thin walls made of simple squamous epithelium Type I and type II alveolar cells Diffusion of gases takes place across an alveolar-capillary respiratory membrane


15 LUNGS Paired organs in the thoracic cavity Right lung : 3 lobes
horizontal/oblique fissure Left lung : 2 lobes oblique fissure Apex/Base Hilus


17 PLEURAL MEMBRANES Parietal pleura Visceral pleura Pleural cavity
Pleurisy Pneumothorax

18 Physiology of Respiration

19 Pressures Atmospheric pressure - 760mm Hg
Intrapleural pressure - is always less than atmospheric and alveolar pressure Alveolar (intrapulmonary) pressure - changes with phases of breathing Pressure changes in lungs are produced by variations in lung volume

20 BOYLE’S LAW The pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume More volume-less pressure Less volume - more pressure

21 Inspiration Expiration
Alveolar pressure is below atmospheric pressure due to increased volume Air flows into lungs 760 vs 758 mm Hg Alveolar pressure is above atmospheric pressure due to decreased volume Air flows out of lung 762 vs 760 mm Hg


23 Respiratory Air Volumes
Tidal volume Inspiratory reserve volume Expiratory reserve volume Vital capacity Residual volume Spirometer


25 Regulation of Respiration
Medullary rhythmicity center - medulla oblongata controls basic rhythm of respiration Control centers in the pons pneumotaxic center inhibits inspiration apneustic area stimulates inspiration

26 Gas Transport

27 Oxygen Transport 98% of oxygen is bound to hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin
Each hemoglobin molecule has the capacity to bind with four oxygen molecules Hypoxia

28 Factors Affecting Hemoglobin Saturation
Partial pressure of oxygen increase pO2, the greater the % saturation pH - in an acid environment, O2 splits more readily from hemoglobin Temperature - the higher the temperature, the more oxygen released from hemoglobin

29 Carbon dioxide tranport
70% of CO2 is transported in the plasma as bicarbonate ion 23% of CO2 is bound to the globin part of hemoglobin as carbominohemoglobin 7% is dissolved in the plasma

COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) Asthma Bronchitis Emphysema Lung Cancer Tuberculosis Cystic Fibrosis Cheyne-Stokes Respiration Pneumonia Sleep Apnea SIDS



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