OTHER BLOOD GROUPS DR MOHAMMED H SAIEM ALDAHR Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences MED TECH DEP. 3 RD YEAR MT
drmsaiem OTHER BLOOD GROUP SYSTEMS Terminology A blood group system is a group of Ags produced by alleles at a single locus or at loci so closely linked that crossing over not occur or is very rare. They are (blood group genes) located on the autosomal chromosomes and are inherited in straight forward mendeline fashion Most blood group alleles are co-dominant and express a corresponding Ag. Silent or amorphic alleles that produce no Ag are rare. When paired chromosomes carry the same silent allele, a null phenotype results.
drmsaiem OTHER BLOOD GROUP SYSTEMS MNSs Blood Group System MNSs: Ab are usually a mixture of IgM and IgG Usually give dosage effect (variability of reactivity) Dosage effect usually strong reaction with red cells from homozygous (MM) individuals and weak with red cells that are heterozygous (MN) Anti-M does not cause transfusion reaction because of its low thermal range Anti-N is naturally occurring IgM cold agglutinin range. It does not cause transfusion reaction or HDN.
drmsaiem OTHER BLOOD GROUP SYSTEMS Anti-S : Can be IgM or IgG Anti-s: IgG Anti-S and Anti-s can cause hemolytic transfusion reaction and HDN
drmsaiem OTHER BLOOD GROUP SYSTEMS P Blood Group System (Labile with storage) The genes code for transferases that attach a specific sugar to glycolipids on red blood cell membrane. The Ags formed are P 1, P k, and P Red cells that have no P 1, P k, and P Ags are termed p. The serum of these individuals usually contains an Ab that reacts with the P 1, P k, and P Ag. This Ab is called anti-Tj a.
drmsaiem OTHER BLOOD GROUP SYSTEMS P Antibodies Anti-P1 Naturally occurring IgM, allo-antibody frequently found in the serum of P2 individuals Ab can be enhanced by enzyme treated cells Can be clinically significant if it has a thermal range above 30 o C.
drmsaiem OTHER BLOOD GROUP SYSTEMS Anti-P Can occur as allo or auto-antibody Allo-Ab is IgM, naturally occurring Ab with high thermal range Found in the serum of Pk and p individuals. Auto-Ab is an IgG biphasic Ab associated with Paroxysmal cold hemoglbinuria (P.C.H).
drmsaiem OTHER BLOOD GROUP SYSTEMS Anti-Tj a Is a combination of anti-P and P 1 anti-P k produced by p individuals. It can be IgM or IgG and can cause transfusion reaction and HDN
drmsaiem OTHER BLOOD GROUP SYSTEMS The I Blood Group System The I and i antigens are found on nearly all red cells. The I Ag is present in large amount on the red cells of adults, but only small quantities on red cells of newborns Ii Antibodies Are IgM, naturally occurring auto-agglutinins with low thermal range. They are not clinically significant unless they react above 30 o C.
drmsaiem OTHER BLOOD GROUP SYSTEMS The I Blood Group System An increase in the titer of anti-I is frequently found in patients with Mycoplasma pneumonae infections. Anti-I is rarely found in healthy individuals, but can form secondary to viral infection such as infectious mononucleosis. It is usually not clinically significant but can cause hemolysis if it has a thermal range.
drmsaiem OTHER BLOOD GROUP SYSTEMS DUFFY System Ag are far less common in blacks Can be neutralized by enzymes such as (ficin, papain, bromelin). Phenotype Frequency (Blacks) Phenotype Frequency (Blacks) Fy (a+b-) 9% Fy (a+b+) 1% Fy (a-b+) 22% Fy (a-b-) 68%
drmsaiem OTHER BLOOD GROUP SYSTEMS KIDD System Can be implicated in HDN and Warm AIHA 50% of delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction are due to Kidd Abs Phenotype Jk (a+b-) Jk (a+b+) Jk (a- b+) Jk (a- b-)
drmsaiem OTHER BLOOD GROUP SYSTEMS LUTHERAN System Can be both IgG and IgM Anti-Lu b tends to be more clinically significant. Phenotype Lu (a+b-) Lu (a- b+) Lu (a- b+)