Short –Term Memory Immediate- (Clipboard) Sensory data that are not lost move from the Thalamus to the sensory processing areas of the cortex and through two temporary memories. Holds data for about 30 seconds. Operates subconsciously or consciously. Threats and emotions Emotional data take priority Fight or Flight reaction (Page 42)
Short –Term Memory Working Memory- (work table) is the second temporary memory. Processes data consciously. Most work processed in the frontal lobes Has limited capacity Average time span for processing 10-20 minutes before fatigue or boredom sets in. (Pages 44-45)
Long Term Memory (File cabinets)Information is most likely to get stored if it has meaning and sense. Does this have meaning? Does this make sense? Brain scans have shown that when new learning is readily comprehensible (sense) and can be connected to past experiences (meaning) there is substantially more cerebral activity followed by improved retention. (page 48)
Memory Pathways Semantic Memory- (Declarative- words) Works by association- most used Rhymes, mnemonics, similar content Procedural Memory- How to do something motor) Works by body-kinesthetic Manipulatives, role playing Episodic Memory- (Loci-spatial) Works by space,(location), time and circumstance Where were you when? (pages 82-84)
Cognitive Belief System The total construct of how we see the world is called the Cognitive Belief System. Self Concept- shaped by past experiences Attach emotional reactions to cognitive events. Self concept shut-down characterized by folding arms, losing themselves in other work, causing distractions. (Pages 51-54)
Rehearsal and Retention Sense and meaning can occur if the learner has time to process and reprocess it (rehearsal). Rote Rehearsal- exact recall- sequence Multiplication, steps in a procedure Elaborate Rehearsal-associating new learning with past. (Coaching Principle) Make up a story, use in real world, study groups, mind maps, learn contextually. (pages 84-87)
Primacy- Recency In a learning episode we tend to remember That which comes first-fit into the working memory’s functional capacity- retained in Semantic Memory Prime Time -1 That which comes last- Prime Time –2 (pages 88-101)
Transfer Transfer- “So What” of learning. Provides connections. Past (prior knowledge) impacts the present. Provoked by environment (Hook- engagement) Positive Transfer- Past helps with new learning. Negative Transfer- Past interferes with new learning.
Review How are the senses important to learning? What is the significance of the “Clip board” in Sousa’s Model? What is the significance of the “Working table” in Sousa’s Model? What two key concepts impact the storage of information into long term memory? What are Memory Pathways? Explain the significance of the Cognitive Belief System?