Assess Needs Begin by determining an instructional need that you plan to address. Is there a gap between what learners should be able to do and what they can do? How can you assess the need for instruction?
Identify Goals Educational goals are broad, overall purposes or plans for instruction. Example: “Students should understand the process by which new cells are duplicated from older cells.” Identify the general goals you have for your instructional unit.
Analyze Audience Audience analysis Who will your learners be? What are their characteristics? Be as specific as you can be in identifying as many relevant characteristics as you can. How can you analyze your audience?
Task Analysis Instructional task analysis What content will you need to present? What content already exists? Can you modify it? What must be created? Is certain content prerequisite to other content? How will you sequence or otherwise organize your content?
Multimedia Suitability Is multimedia appropriate? Does your instructional goal warrant the use of multimedia? What will multimedia contribute? Is the contribution of the multimedia worth the extra time and expense required to create it?
Gather Resources Resource acquisition is one of the most important processes in multimedia development. Assemble your: Text Still Images Video Audio
Organize Resources In addition to acquiring the resources, it can be equally important to properly organize and label them. Use a consistent naming scheme and store like items in folders for easy access.
Objectives Educational objectives are specific statements of what students will be able to do upon completion of the instruction. Example: “The student will be able to name four stages of mitosis and describe the processes that occur at each stage.”
Writing Objectives Well-written objectives specify three component parts, although some parts may be assumed: Performance Conditions Criteria
Objective Example Given a diagram of a plant or animal cell, the student will be able to correctly label at least seven major cell organelles or structures. Write objectives for your own content that include performance, conditions, and criteria.
Develop Assessments As you create your objectives, also develop means of assessing them, e.g., write quiz or review questions. Developing assessments at the outset will help you to see where your objectives may need to be adjusted and insure that you provide appropriate instruction.
Plan User Interface Consistency Mimic real-world functionality Flexibility - provide multiple ways of doing things Provide status cues Aesthetics – use clean design and nice colors Help – provide help for users
Instructional Strategies Identify key mechanisms for promoting learning, e.g., Embedded questions with informative feedback Use of structured content presentation, such as simple to complex build-up Use of metaphors Elaborative construction activities
Flowcharts and Storyboards Flowcharts are used to identify logical program flow. Storyboards are used to depict what program frames will look like. Correct? Yes No
Authoring Environment For practical reasons, this step often occurs earlier but, when possible, it is best to match the authoring environment to specific project needs. Options: Programming languages Multimedia/hypermedia development tools Authoring systems
Create Program Interactivity Learner control Clear organization Sequencing and branching High-quality media Personality Makes use of medium Rapid pacing / information dense Clear and simple frames Team approach
Formative Evaluation Throughout the process, evaluate each step, and use that information make revisions. Formative evaluators should include: Yourself SMEs and peers Example users
Support Material As the final program is taking shape, prepare documentation to support the program. Printed matter Online documentation and help
Implement Program The final step is to actually implement the program with the intended users. In the real world, this can involve significant logistical, maintenance, and support issues.
Summative Evaluation As a final step, you should evaluate the performance of the finished product with the actual target users. This evaluation is meant to confirm that the product does what it is supposed to do.