Presentation on theme: "Instructional System Design"— Presentation transcript:
1 Instructional System Design ADDIEInstructional System DesignEDTC Spring 2006Jerry CiesiolkaKathy SilvasAnn Alexander
2 -determine or define what is to be learned. AnalysisAnalysisDIE-determine or define whatis to be learned.Sample TasksNeeds assessmentProblem identificationTask analysisSample OutputLearner profileDescription of ConstraintsNeeds, Problem StatementTask analysis
3 A Design D I E -process or method of specifying how it is to AnalysisADesignDIE-process or method ofspecifying how it is tobe learned.Sample TasksWrite objectivesDevelop test itemsPlan instructionIdentify resourcesSample OutputMeasurable objectivesInstructional StrategyPrototype specifications
4 authoring and producing materials. DevelopmentADDevelopmentIEDesign-process or method ofauthoring and producingmaterials.Sample TasksWork with producersDevelop workbook, flowchart, programSample OutputStoryboardScriptsExercisesComputer Assisted InstructionAnalysis
5 installing the project in the real world context. ImplementationDevelopmentADImplementationE-process or method ofinstalling the project in thereal world context.Sample TasksTeacher trainingTryoutSample OutputStudent comments, dataDesignAnalysis
6 determining the adequacy of the instruction. SummativeEvaluationADIEvaluationImplementationAnalysis-process or method ofdetermining the adequacyof the instruction.Sample TasksRecord time dataInterpret test resultsSurvey usersRevise activitiesSample OutputRecommendationsProject reportRevised prototypeDevelopmentDesign
7 A D I Evaluation Formative Evaluation ADDIE is an iterative model SummativeEvaluationADIEvaluationImplementationAnalysisFormativeEvaluationADDIE is an iterative modelwhereby the results of theformative evaluation of eachphase can lead the designerback to any previous phase.DevelopmentDesign
8 Dick & Carey http://www.umich.edu/~ed626/Dick_Carey/dc.html This is an overall view of the Dick and Carey Design Model as we have seen and used in class. This graphic comes from a presentation by Lee which was a link in from the Session 2 outline.
9 ADDIE vs Dick & Carey Analysis Design Develop Implement Evaluation ImplementationFormativeEvaluationNow, we see the two designs: ADDIE and Dick and Carey side-by-side. The most obvious difference between the two models is the number of steps. Put simply, ADDIE simplifies and combines many of the Dick and Carey steps into one.For example…DevelopmentDesign
10 Analysis: Determine or define what is to be learned. ADDIE vs Dick & CareyAnalysis: Determine or define what is to be learned.Sample Tasks:Needs assessmentProblem identificationTask analysisLearner analysisDelivery options, budget, timeline, constraintsIdentify instructional goalsNeeds analysisConduct instructional analysisTask analysisIdentify Entry BehaviorsLearner characteristicsPrerequisite skillsSimply put, the first phase in ADDIE combines the first three phases in the Dick & Carey model – all have to do with analyzing. However, the ADDIE model also specifies other factors in the phase that I have not seen specified by Dick & Carey: they include many items that would need to be determined in the first meetings with the client, such as: delivery options (are there any), budget, timeline, and any constraints of learners and resources.
11 Design: process or method of specifying how it is to be learned. ADDIE vs Dick & CareyDesign: process or method of specifying how it is to be learned.Sample TasksWrite objectivesDevelop test itemsPlan instructionIdentify resourcesCreate storyboardsCollect materialsDesign user interfaceWrite Performance ObjectivesTranslate needs and goals into objectivesSpecify the conditions (tools), behaviors (actions), and criteria (indicator of success).Develop Criterion-Referenced TestsDevelop test itemsBased on the Performance ObjectivesDevelop Instructional StrategiesPlan instructionCreate storyboardsCollect materialsRevise instruction – may be necessary to go back to instructional analysis and revise.Again, the tasks are extremely similar when comparing the two models. Dick & Carey simply break it down into several different steps, instead of lumping it all together. I think the additional steps of the D&C model help the new Instructional Designer to follow a logic sequence of the process.
12 Develop: process or method of authoring and producing materials. ADDIE vs Dick & CareyDevelop: process or method of authoring and producing materials.Sample TasksWork with producersDevelop workbook, flowchartComputer programDevelop and Select Instructional MaterialsWorking from the designs in the previous phase, the designer will:Work with producersDevelop a workbookDevelop computer programCreate an instructor’s guide and/or user’s guideHere, we have more similar tasks, only this time they overlap somewhat with the previous design step. There comes a point in the designing of instruction that you actually begin to develop at least some of the materials you intend to use.
13 Establish implementation timeline Procedures for training facilitators ADDIE vs Dick & CareyImplement: process or method of installing the project in the real world context.Sample TasksEstablish implementation timelineProcedures for training facilitatorsPreparation of learnersPlacing all tools (manuals, technology, etc.)Implementation is built into Formative EvaluationThis is one step in ADDIE that is not specified in the Dick & Carey model – it appears to be an implied part of the formative evaluation. You certainly must have implemented the instruction in order to conduct an evaluation.
14 ADDIE vs Dick & CareyEvaluate: process or method of determining the adequacy of instruction.Sample TasksRecord time dataInterpret test resultsSurvey usersRevise activitiesIncludes Formative and Summative evaluationsIt is important to note that Formative Evaluation can and often should be conducted as part of EACH of the stagesDevelop and Conduct Formative EvaluationOne-on-one interviewSmall GroupField trial (before final implementation)Develop and Conduct Summative EvaluationTo investigate the effectiveness of the whole systemConducted after the final version has been implementedCan be used for revision of current and/or future instruction systemsAgain, the ADDIE model combines the two types of evaluations into one step, although both Formative and Summative Evaluations are used in the process. I think the most significant difference is that a Formative evaluation is meant to be an integral part of each of the stages of development.
15 ADDIE – Commercial Use Challenges you to survive the dangers of the long journey withbuffalo stampedes, raging riversand many more challenges along theway. You must organize your party,choosing people and supplies neededto complete the ruggedjourney. Also, budget food andsupplies, consult guidebooks andstudy the landscape to find the bestroute.
16 Analysis D I E Audience Learning Goals & Objectives Delivery & ConstraintsMeasure CompetencyTimelineWho is the audience?Forth to seventh grade studentsWhat do they need to learn?The goals and objectives and timeline established for the production team of the Oregon Trail Project were: Goal:To produce a multimedia “Idaho Emigrant Trails” CD-ROM for grades 4-7Objectives:To design the CD-ROM components so that they are easy to useTo reduce the amount of unnecessary sounds, animations, and graphics in current projects, and to add new ones that are appropriate to the contentTo design the project so that it is consistent throughoutTo design the CD-ROM so that it is compatible with both PC and Mac platformsTo produce a project that is interesting and artistic for grades 4-7What are the delivery options?CD based productWill run off the CD (downloading to hard drive not required)SoftwareDirector – self contained “projector” file formatQuicktime or AVI compatible softwareWhat constraints exist?Computer resources – minimum specifications to run projector files might be higher than specifications of the “average” computer in the schools.Learner ageWhat will the students do to determine competency?Are there any assignments? Its just info isn’t it?Accuracy in completing assignments, worksheets, quizzes, etc.What is the timeline for project completion?Including management, assigning tasks, flowcharting, storyboarding, design, etc. The timeline established for the production team of the Oregon Trail Project was:Timetable:Linking/Locating Resources (2 Week)Flowchart/Storyboard (2-4 Weeks)Coding (6 Weeks)Technical Support/Test (2 Weeks)Create a concept map based on preliminary research.Products of a series of brainstorming sessions, and are the starting points for the flow charts providing clear directions for the production of the product.The concept map developed for the Timeline portion of the Oregon Trail Project organized the timeframe of the trail between Decades were identified and subtopics for each were listed.Oregon Trail Project Timeline Concept MapWhat are the classroom/Web learning differences?Ensuring all students do their own work, teaching of the Web concepts, computer literacy, etc.What are the online pedagogical considerations?Verbal, visual, tactile, auditory, etc.Concept MapEnvironmentPedagogy
17 Flowcharts organize and sequence the user interactions DesignADesignDIEAnalysisFlowcharts organize and sequence the user interactionsThe design phase of the ADDIE instructional design model suggests five steps: (1) continue with subject matter analysis, (2) apply instructional strategies according to the content type, (3) create storyboards, (4) design the user interface, and (5) collect needed materials.
18 A D Development I E Storyboards Script Prototypes Development Design Storyboards: Storyboards are created by the development team to assist in defining the content in relation to screen layout. Storyboards aid with the flow and format of the project.Script: Scripting is the programming found in multimedia authoring tools. It handles specialized functions such as transitions, navigation, timing, sound, and other actions.Prototype: Prototyping is a simplified version created to demonstrate features and functions of the program. Prototyping is used to test the program's effectiveness. Prototypes are created to implement a pilot program.PrototypesAnalysis
19 Implementation Plan A D Implementation E Beta Testing Target Audience TrialTeacher TrainingDevelopment-process or method ofinstalling the project in thereal world context.Product format: Text with CD.Teacher facilitators: Middle school social science teachers.Target learners: middle school students in Idaho.Scheduling to train learning facilitators. (Four Hour, Hands-On Training)Provide a workshop to the middle school social science teachers in Idaho. Contents of the workshop include:The basic knowledge about HyperStudio.The features of the Oregon Trail text and CD. For example, user friendly.How to find and use supporting materials.Demonstrate the use of the Oregon Trail text and CD.Show them how to actual use of the product.Provide Oregon Trail manual and CD.Provide information about on-line support.Provide computer-assisted instruction (tutorial) for using the Oregon Trail CD.List the minimum equipment requirements for running the Oregon Trail CD.Entry level skills of students for successful completion of the Oregon Trail curriculum, such as learner's reading and computer skills.Provide teacher's guideAll the content taught in the workshop should be included in the teacher's guide. In addition, a troubleshooting guide will be included in the teacher's guide to help teachers solve troubles they may encounter.DesignAnalysis
20 A D I Evaluation Formative Evaluation ADDIE is an iterative model SummativeEvaluationADIEvaluationImplementationAnalysisFormativeEvaluationThe Evaluation Phase of the ADDIE Model calls for a plan which addresses both formative and summative evaluation. Information will be gathered to ascertain learning effectiveness, learner motivation, content and technical quality, and implementability. Remember that . . .Formative Evaluation is an ongoing process designed for use at each phase of the ADDIE Model. Formative evaluation directs the project and allows for ongoing improvement and adjustment. Developers collect data and information at each stage of development to improve the effectiveness of the product. Summative Evaluation evaluates the product in its final form and is conducted to determine whether or not the learning objectives have been met.ProductProduct format: Text with CD.Target Learners: Middle School Teachers in IdahoProcess: Four Hour hands-on Training for middle school social science teacher in Idaho.Learner Objective: Given the Oregon Trail CD, Teacher’s Guide and four hours of Training, the learner will be able to navigate the Oregon Trail CD and demonstrate it to middle school students.A pre-test and a post-test will be given to be used in both formative and summative evaluation. A student attitude questionnaire will also be given.Formative Evaluation PlanThere are three stages of formative evaluation, however, prior to the implementation of these stages, the Oregon Trail CD and Teacher’s Guide will be reviewed by both a Subject-Matter and Learner Specialist to ensure accuracy in both areas.Stage 1: One-to-One Evaluation The evaluator will work individually with three teachers, two with average ability and one with below average ability. The evaluator will gather information to see how the learner reacts to the instruction and interacts with computer technology. The following elements will be evaluated by gathering descriptive data in the following areas:Clarity: Is the information presented on the Oregon Trail CD and Teacher’s Guide clear to the target audience?Message: How clear is the message?Links: How clear are the examples, illustrations, and demonstrations?Procedures: How clear is the sequencing, segmentations, and transitions?Impact: How does the instruction on the Oregon Trail CD and Teacher’s Guide impact the learner?Is the information personally relevant?Can the information, quizes and problems be accomplished?Is the instruction interesting?Feasibility: How is the instruction in the Oregon Trail CD and Teacher’s Guide managed?How will the independence and motivation of the learner impact the amount of time needed to complete the instruction?Is the equipment necessary for the instruction easily operated?Is the learner comfortable with the computing environment?Is the cost of delivering instruction via the CD reasonable?Stage 2: Small Group Evaluation Stage 2 evaluation expands on Stage 1. Small group evaluation determines if changes made in the first stage were effective and whether or not the instruction is effective without the aid of a monitor. Fifteen teachers, representative of the target population, will be selected. In contrast to One-on-One evaluation, the evaluator will present the Oregon Trail CD and Teacher’s Guide; explain that the materials are in the developmental stage, allow the learners to forge through the instruction as if in its final form, and request feedback. Quantitative data will be added to the descriptive data collected in Stage 1. A student attitude survey will be given. The attitude survey will take into account, ease and familiarity of equipment, instructor competency and helpfulness, interaction with instructional module as well as teacher and other learners, and the learning environment.Stage 3: Field Trial The final stage of formative evaluation encourages the close simulation of the actual learning environment and instructional materials. At this juncture, the Oregon Trail CD and Teacher’s Guide have been revised and recommendations from the previous two stages have been incorporated.Summative EvaluationUse of well-designed pre and post tests to determine knowledge gain is recommended. The evaluation tool must:Accurately reflect the instructional goals to ensure content validity.Be based on multiple observers to ensure reliability.Be consistent among different classrooms, teachers, and rotationsSuggested Means for EvaluationTest for criterion-related referenced itemsProvide means for anonymous feedback as well as face-to-faceThe evaluator will discuss, one-on-one, with the learner particular responses and reactions of the questionnaire and pre-test, post test as well as the above mentioned questions to search for mistakes and reasons for mistakes.The various evaluation instruments will be evaluated for clarity, reliability, and accuracy.Amount of time needed to complete the instruction will be calculatedA Computer/learner interaction check list for consistency, matching of instructional goals, and coding errors will be used.ADDIE is an iterative modelwhereby the results of theformative evaluation of eachphase can lead the designerback to any previous phase.DevelopmentDesign