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1 CSE1301 Computer Programming: Lecture 34 Introduction to the History of Computing.

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Presentation on theme: "1 CSE1301 Computer Programming: Lecture 34 Introduction to the History of Computing."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 CSE1301 Computer Programming: Lecture 34 Introduction to the History of Computing

2 2 Astronomical computers 4000 BC: sundials Stonehenge (2800-1800B.C.) Ancient stone sundial

3 3 Abacus 1000-500 BC (Babylonians): mechanical aid used for counting The Salamis Tablet (Greek, 300BC) The Roman Hand Abacus

4 4 Abacus (cont.) Modern: 1200 A.D to present Middle Ages 5 A.D to c1400 A.D Ancient times: 300 B.C. to c500A.D.

5 5 Arabic Astrolabe Back Front From c700A.D.

6 6 Da Vinci’s Mechanical Calculator Notebook sketches c1500 Working model

7 7 Napier’s Bones Early 1600s Multiplication tables inscribed on strips of wood and bones

8 8 Oughtred’s Slide Rule Rev. William Oughtred 1621 Use logs to perform multiplication and division by using addition and subtraction

9 9 Pascal’s arithmetic engine Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) Mechanical calculator for addition and subtraction

10 10 Leibnez’s Step Reckoner Gottfried von Leibnez 1670 Add, subtract, multiply, divide, square roots

11 11 Jacquard’s punch card Joseph Marie Jacquard 1804 punch cards used to operator loom

12 12 Babbage’s analytical engine Charles Babbage (1791-1871) Design for the analytical engine

13 13 The World’s First Programmer Lady Ada Augusta Byron, Countess of Lovelace (1815-1952) (1791-1871)

14 14 Hollerith’s Tabulating Machine Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) Invented a punched card device to help analyse the 1890 US census data Founded “Tabulating Machine Company” 1896 1924 – Tabulating Machine Company merges with others to form IBM

15 15 MIT Differential Analyzer Purpose: to solve differential equations Mechanical computation with first use of vacuum tubes for memory Programmed by aligning gears on shafts 1930s

16 16 Alan Turing (1912-1954) Develops theory of computability and the “Turing Machine” model – a simple but elegant mathematical model of a general purpose computer (~1936) Helped crack German codes in WWII (1939-1945)

17 17 Konrad Zuse 1936: Z1 first binary computer suing Erector Set parts, keyboard and lights for output (relay memory) 1938: Z2 – using punched tape and relays Z1

18 18 The first computers 1939 Atanasoff-Berry Computer –First electronic-digital computer? –Binary numbers, direct logic for calculation, regenerative memory Prototype 1939 2 years then to build full scale model –One op per 15 secs, 300 vacuum tubes, 700 pounds, mile of wire ABC Prototype

19 19 The first computers (cont.) 1943 British Colossus – first all-electronic computer? (2,400 vacuum tubes) –Decipher enigma coded messages at 5,000 chars/sec –At peak, 10 machines ran 24 hours a day A German enigma coding machine

20 20 The first computers (cont.) 1943-44 Aiken at Harvard/IBM “Mark 1” – first electromechanical digital computer (electromagnetic relays – magnets open and close metal switches) (recreation of Analytical Engine) –8 ft tall, 50 ft long, 1 million parts –323 decimal-digit additions per sec –storage for 72 23-digit numbers.

21 21 ENIAC (1946) 18,000 tubes, 1500 sq ft Programmed by wire plugs into panels –5,000 decimal-digit additions/sec –20 10-decimal digit “accumulators” Von Neumann and ENIAC 1941 Von Neumann proposes EDVAC – Electronic Discrete Variable Computer Computer should –Use binary –Have stored programs –Be function-oriented

22 22 UNIVAC-1 The world’s first commercially available (non-military) computer “I think there is a world market for about five computers” –Thomas J. Watson, IBM Chairman

23 23 Computer Generations First: vacuum tubes Second: semiconductor transistor chips (Bell labs, 1950s) Third: support for multi- programming, including “mini-computers) : 1960s Fourth: no agreement! –VSLI super-computer –Micro-computer (PCs, workstations) 1980s… Whirlwind core memory 1951 IBM PC c1982

24 24 Moore’s Law 1965: predicted exponential growth in transistors per integrated circuit would continue.

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