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End Show History of Computers Ancient Times In the beginning, man used his fingers and toes to perform simple computations such as addition and subtraction.

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End Show 3000 BC - The first man- made computing device is the “Abacus”. In the Abacus, small beads are arranged on a series of vertical rods in a manner that by manipulating them, it is possible with some skill and practice, to make rapid calculations. 0 th Generation(before 1939)

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End Show 1614AD – Napier's bones John Napier (1550-1617), a Scottish mathematician, invented the Napier’s Bones - an aid to multiplication. A set of bones consisted of nine (9) rods, one for each digit 1 through 9. A rod is essentially one column of a multiplication table.

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End Show Napier’s bone (Napiers Rods) (A mathematician)-1614 Multiply two numbers John Napier

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End Show In 1642, Blaise Pascal, a French mathematician, invented an adding machine. The machine has adopted partly the principles of the abacus but did away with the use of the hand to move the beads or counters. Instead, Pascal used wheels to move counters. Pascaline

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End Show Pascaline

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End Show In 1674, Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibnitz made improvements on Pascal’s machine. With Leibnitz’s improvements, it was possible for the machine to divide and multiply as easily as it could add and subtract.

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End Show Charles Babbage ( “father of computers “)

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End Show Charles Babbage made ANALYTICAL ENGINE (In 1833) DIFFERENTIAL ENGINE (In 1883)

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End Show Analytical Engine

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End Show Difference Engine

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End Show 4. 1840 – Ada, the first programmer suggested binary data storage rather than decimal. 5. 1880 – Dr.Herman Hollerith developed the punched card that would contain data coded in form of punched holes.

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End Show PUNCHED CARD MACHINE (Tabulating Machine) Herman Hollerith

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End Show 1.First Generation (1939-1954) - vacuum tube 2.Second Generation Computers (1954-1959) - transistor 3.Third Generation Computers (1959-1971) - IC 4.Fourth Generation (1971-1990) - microprocessor 5. Fifth Generation (from 1991 ) Generation of Computers

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End Show 1939 – Dr. John Vincent Atanasoft produced the first prototype electronic computer.

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End Show 1944 – Aitken built Mark 1 the first automatic, sequence controlled calculator; used by military to compute ballistic data. 1947 – Mauchy and Eckert built ENIAC – 2 nd Electronic digital computer.

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End Show 1949 – Maurice, Eckert and Von Neumann built EDVAC the -1st stored program computer. 1950 – Turing built Ace – 1st programmable computer.

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End Show 1951 – Mauchy and Eckert built UNIVAC 1 – 1st commercially sold.

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End Show UNIVAC I ca. 1955,

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End Show Bendix G-15 of 1956

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End Show IBM 650

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End Show 1960 – Gene Amdahl designed IBM System/360 main frame computer – 1st general purpose digital using Integrated circuits. 1963 – Olsen with Digital Equipment Corporation produced PDP-1 – 1 st Mini computer.

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End Show Ted Hoff of Intel Corporation produced microprocessor Intel 4004. 1975 – H.Edward Roberts – 1st Microcomputer. 1976 – Seymour Cray CRAY-1 Supercomputer.

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End Show 1977 – Stephen Wonzniak and Steven Jobs built first Apple Microcomputer. 1980 – Lower cost Personal Computers.

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End Show Present state Palm Top PDA Desk Top Wearing Computer

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End Show Technical Evolution of Computers Increase in speed Increase in storage capacity Increase in reliability Reduction in system cost PeriodCircuitryInputOutputStorageLanguageTypical computers 1951- 1959 Vacuum Tubes Punched cards & magnetic tapes Punched cards Magneti c Tapes AssemblyUNIVAC-1 1959- 1965 TransistorsPunched cards & magnetic tapes Punched cards Magneti c Tapes High level languages FORTRAN IBM 1400 1965- 1971 Integrated Circuits Keyboard s MonitorsMagneti c disks PASCALIBM System/360

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End Show GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERS FIRST (early 50's) SECOND (late 50's) THIRD (60's) FOURTH (70's +) Technologyvacuum tubesTransistorsIC Microchips (LSI, VLSI) Relative speed1100 1,000,000 +++ Relative cost10.10.010.001 --- RAM capacity (bytes) 1,000-8,0004,000-64,000 32,000- 4,000,000 32,000,000+++ External storage cardsTapemagnetic disksmass storage Operating System Single user; jobs scheduled manually Single user; jobs scheduled automatical ly Multiple users; time- sharing Multiple users; distributed systems

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End Show Microprocessor development. Model (Intel)Model (Motorola) YEARSpeed ( MHz) (roughly) 80888 8086680004-8 801866801016 8028668020198220 80386DX68030198640 80486dx468040199066-75 Pentium MMXPower Pc1997166/200 Pentium IIPower PC G3/G41997350- 450 Pentium III2000450-1200 Pentium IV20011600-3000

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