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Chapter 7: Gravitation Click the mouse or press the spacebar to continue. Splash Screen

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**In this chapter you will:**

Learn the nature of gravitational force. Relate Kepler’s laws of planetary motion to Newton's laws of motion. Describe the orbits of planets and satellites using the law of universal gravitation. Chapter Intro

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**Chapter 7: Gravitation Section 7.1: Planetary Motion and Gravitation**

Section 7.2: Using the Law of Universal Gravitation Chapter Menu

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**In this section you will:**

Relate Kepler’s laws to the law of universal gravitation. Calculate orbital speeds and periods. Describe the importance of Cavendish’s experiment. Section 1-1

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**Click image to view the movie.**

Kepler’s Laws Kepler discovered the laws that describe the motions of every planet and satellite. Kepler’s first law states that the paths of the planets are ellipses, with the Sun at one focus. Click image to view the movie. Section 1-2

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**Click image to view the movie.**

Kepler’s Laws Kepler found that the planets move faster when they are closer to the Sun and slower when they are farther away from the Sun. Kepler’s second law states that an imaginary line from the Sun to a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal time intervals. Click image to view the movie. Section 1-3

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Kepler’s Laws Kepler also found that there is a mathematical relationship between periods of planets and their mean distances away from the Sun. Section 1-4

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**Click image to view the movie.**

Kepler’s Laws Kepler’s third law states that the square of the ratio of the periods of any two planets revolving about the Sun is equal to the cube of the ratio of their average distances from the Sun. Click image to view the movie. Section 1-4

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Kepler’s Laws Thus, if the periods of the planets are TA and TB, and their average distances from the Sun are rA and rB, Kepler’s third law can be expressed as follows: The squared quantity of the period of planet A divided by the period of planet B, is equal to the cubed quantity of planet A’s average distance from the Sun divided by planet B’s average distance from the Sun. Section 1-5

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Kepler’s Laws The first two laws apply to each planet, moon, and satellite individually. The third law, however, relates the motion of several objects about a single body. Section 1-6

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**Callisto’s Distance from Jupiter**

Galileo measured the orbital sizes of Jupiter’s moons using the diameter of Jupiter as a unit of measure. He found that lo, the closest moon to Jupiter, had a period of 1.8 days and was 4.2 units from the center of Jupiter. Callisto, the fourth moon from Jupiter, had a period of 16.7 days. Using the same units that Galileo used, predict Callisto’s distance from Jupiter. Section 1-7

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**Step 1: Analyze and Sketch the Problem**

Callisto’s Distance from Jupiter Step 1: Analyze and Sketch the Problem Section 1-8

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**Callisto’s Distance from Jupiter**

Sketch the orbits of Io and Callisto. Section 1-9

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**Callisto’s Distance from Jupiter**

Label the radii. Known: TC = 16.7 days TI = 1.8 days rI = 4.2 units Unknown: rC = ? Section 1-10

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**Step 2: Solve for the Unknown**

Callisto’s Distance from Jupiter Step 2: Solve for the Unknown Section 1-11

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**Callisto’s Distance from Jupiter**

Solve Kepler’s third law for rC. Section 1-12

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**Callisto’s Distance from Jupiter**

Substitute rI = 4.2 units, TC = 16.7 days, TI = 1.8 days in: Section 1-13

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**Step 3: Evaluate the Answer**

Callisto’s Distance from Jupiter Step 3: Evaluate the Answer Section 1-14

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**Callisto’s Distance from Jupiter**

Are the units correct? rC should be in Galileo’s units, like rI. Is the magnitude realistic? The period is large, so the radius should be large. Section 1-15

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**Callisto’s Distance from Jupiter**

The steps covered were: Step 1: Analyze and Sketch the Problem Sketch the orbits of Io and Callisto. Label the radii. Step 2: Solve for the Unknown Solve Kepler’s third law for rC. Step 3: Evaluate the Answer Section 1-16

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**Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation**

Newton found that the magnitude of the force, F, on a planet due to the Sun varies inversely with the square of the distance, r, between the centers of the planet and the Sun. That is, F is proportional to 1/r2. The force, F, acts in the direction of the line connecting the centers of the two objects. Section 1-17

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**Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation**

The sight of a falling apple made Newton wonder if the force that caused the apple to fall might extend to the Moon, or even beyond. He found that both the apple’s and the Moon’s accelerations agreed with the 1/r2 relationship. Section 1-18

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**Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation**

According to his own third law, the force Earth exerts on the apple is exactly the same as the force the apple exerts on Earth. The force of attraction between two objects must be proportional to the objects’ masses, and is known as the gravitational force. Section 1-19

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**Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation**

The law of universal gravitation states that objects attract other objects with a force that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The gravitational force is equal to the universal gravitational constant, times the mass of object 1, times the mass of object 2, divided by the square of the distance between the centers of the objects. Section 1-20

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Inverse Square Law According to Newton’s equation, F is inversely related to the square of the distance. Section 1-21

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**Universal Gravitation and Kepler’s Third Law**

Newton stated his law of universal gravitation in terms that applied to the motion of planets around the Sun. This agreed with Kepler’s third law and confirmed that Newton’s law fit the best observations of the day. Section 1-22

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**Universal Gravitation and Kepler’s Third Law**

In the equation below, squaring both sides makes it apparent that this equation is Kepler’s third law of planetary motion: the square of the period is proportional to the cube of the distance that separates the masses. Section 1-23

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**Universal Gravitation and Kepler’s Third Law**

The factor 4π2/Gms depends on the mass of the Sun and the universal gravitational constant. Newton found that this derivative applied to elliptical orbits as well. Section 1-24

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**Click image to view the movie.**

Measuring the Universal Gravitational Constant Click image to view the movie. Section 1-25

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Importance of G Cavendish’s experiment often is called “weighing Earth,” because his experiment helped determine Earth’s mass. Once the value of G is known, not only the mass of Earth, but also the mass of the Sun can be determined. In addition, the gravitational force between any two objects can be calculated using Newton’s law of universal gravitation. Section 1-26

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**Cavendish’s Experiment**

Determined the value of G. Confirmed Newton’s prediction that a gravitational force exists between two objects. Helped calculate the mass of Earth. Section 1-27

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**Question 1 Which of the following helped calculate Earth’s mass?**

A. Inverse square law B. Cavendish’s experiment C. Kepler’s first law D. Kepler’s third law Section 1-28

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Answer 1 Reason: Cavendish's experiment helped calculate the mass of Earth. It also determined the value of G and confirmed Newton’s prediction that a gravitational force exists between two objects. Section 1-29

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Question 2 Which of the following is true according to Kepler’s first law? A. Paths of planets are ellipses with the Sun at one focus. B. Any object with mass has a field around it. C. There is a force of attraction between two objects. D. The force between two objects is proportional to their masses. Section 1-30

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Answer 2 Reason: According to Kepler’s first law, the paths of planets are ellipses, with the Sun at one focus. Section 1-31

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Question 3 An imaginary line from the Sun to a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal time intervals. This is a statement of: A. Kepler’s first law B. Kepler’s second law C. Kepler’s third law D. Cavendish’s experiment Section 1-32

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Answer 3 Reason: According to Kepler’s second law, an imaginary line from the Sun to a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal time intervals. Section 1-33

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Section 1-33

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**In this section you will:**

Solve orbital motion problems. Relate weightlessness to objects in free fall. Describe gravitational fields. Compare views on gravitation. Section 2-1

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**Click image to view the movie.**

Orbits of Planets and Satellites Newton used a drawing similar to the one shown below to illustrate a thought experiment on the motion of satellites. Click image to view the movie. Section 2-2

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**Orbits of Planets and Satellites**

A satellite in an orbit that is always the same height above Earth moves in a uniform circular motion. Combining the equations for centripetal acceleration and Newton’s second law, you can derive the equation for the speed, v, of a satellite orbiting Earth. Section 2-3

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**A Satellite’s Orbital Period**

A satellite’s orbit around Earth is similar to a planet’s orbit about the Sun. Recall that the period of a planet orbiting the Sun is expressed by the following equation: Section 2-4

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**A Satellite’s Orbital Period**

Thus, the period for a satellite orbiting Earth is given by the following equation: The period for a satellite orbiting Earth is equal to 2π times the square root of the radius of the orbit cubed, divided by the product of the universal gravitational constant and the mass of Earth. Section 2-5

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**A Satellite’s Orbital Period**

The equations for speed and period of a satellite can be used for any object in orbit about another. Central body mass will replace mE, and r will be the distance between the centers of the orbiting body and the central body. If the mass of the central body is much greater than the mass of the orbiting body, then r is equal to the distance between the centers of the orbiting body and the central body. Orbital speed, v, and period, T, are independent of the mass of the satellite. Section 2-6

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**A Satellite’s Orbital Period**

Satellites such as Landsat 7 are accelerated by large rockets such as shuttle-booster rockets to the speeds necessary for them to achieve orbit. Because the acceleration of any mass must follow Newton’s second law of motion, Fnet = ma, more force is required to launch a more massive satellite into orbit. Thus, the mass of a satellite is limited by the capability of the rocket used to launch it. Section 2-7

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**Orbital Speed and Period**

Assume that a satellite orbits Earth 225 km above its surface. Given that the mass of Earth is 5.97×1024 kg and the radius of Earth is 6.38×106 m, what are the satellite’s orbital speed and period? Section 2-8

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**Step 1: Analyze and Sketch the Problem**

Orbital Speed and Period Step 1: Analyze and Sketch the Problem Section 2-9

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**Orbital Speed and Period**

Sketch the situation showing the height of the satellite’s orbit. Section 2-10

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**Orbital Speed and Period**

Identify the known and unknown variables. Known: h = 2.25×105 m rE = 6.38×106 m mE = 5.97×1024 kg G = 6.67×10−11 N·m2/kg2 Unknown: v = ? T = ? Section 2-11

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**Step 2: Solve for the Unknown**

Orbital Speed and Period Step 2: Solve for the Unknown Section 2-12

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**Orbital Speed and Period**

Determine the orbital radius by adding the height of the satellite’s orbit to Earth’s radius. Section 2-13

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**Orbital Speed and Period**

Substitute h = 2.25×105 m, rE = 6.38×106 m. Section 2-14

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**Orbital Speed and Period**

Solve for the speed. Section 2-15

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**Orbital Speed and Period**

Substitute G = 6.67×10-11 N·m2/kg2, mE = 5.97×1024 kg, r = 6.61×106 m. Section 2-16

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**Orbital Speed and Period**

Solve for the period. Section 2-17

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**Orbital Speed and Period**

Substitute r = 6.61×106 m, G = 6.67×10-11 N·m2/kg2, mE = 5.97×1024 kg. Section 2-18

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**Step 3: Evaluate the Answer**

Orbital Speed and Period Step 3: Evaluate the Answer Section 2-19

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**Orbital Speed and Period**

Are the units correct? The unit for speed is m/s and the unit for period is s. Section 2-20

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**Orbital Speed and Period**

The steps covered were: Step 1: Analyze and Sketch the Problem Sketch the situation showing the height of the satellite’s orbit. Step 2: Solve for the Unknown Determine the orbital radius by adding the height of the satellite’s orbit to Earth’s radius. Step 3: Evaluate the Answer Section 2-21

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**Acceleration Due to Gravity**

The acceleration of objects due to Earth’s gravity can be found by using Newton’s law of universal gravitation and his second law of motion. It is given as: This shows that as you move farther away from Earth’s center, that is, as r becomes larger, the acceleration due to gravity is reduced according to this inverse square relationship. Section 2-22

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**Weight and Weightlessness**

Astronauts in a space shuttle are in an environment often called “zero-g” or ”weightlessness.” The shuttle orbits about 400 km above Earth’s surface. At that distance, g = 8.7 m/s2, only slightly less than on Earth’s surface. Thus, Earth’s gravitational force is certainly not zero in the shuttle. Section 2-23

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**Weight and Weightlessness**

You sense weight when something, such as the floor, or your chair, exerts a contact force on you. But if you, your chair, and the floor all are accelerating toward Earth together, then no contact forces are exerted on you. Thus, your apparent weight is zero and you experience weightlessness. Similarly, the astronauts experience weightlessness as the shuttle and everything in it falls freely toward Earth. Section 2-24

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**The Gravitational Field**

Gravity acts over a distance. It acts between objects that are not touching or that are not close together, unlike other forces that are contact forces. For example, friction. In the 19th century, Michael Faraday developed the concept of a field to explain how a magnet attracts objects. Later, the field concept was applied to gravity. Section 2-25

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**The Gravitational Field**

Any object with mass is surrounded by a gravitational field in which another object experiences a force due to the interaction between its mass and the gravitational field, g, at its location. Section 2-26

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**The Gravitational Field**

Gravitation is expressed by the following equation: The gravitational field is equal to the universal gravitational constant, times the object’s mass, divided by the square of the distance from the object’s center. The direction is toward the mass’s center. Section 2-27

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**The Gravitational Field**

To find the gravitational field caused by more than one object, you would calculate both gravitational fields and add them as vectors. The gravitational field can be measured by placing an object with a small mass, m, in the gravitational field and measuring the force, F, on it. The gravitational field can be calculated using g = F/m. The gravitational field is measured in N/kg, which is also equal to m/s2. Section 2-28

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**The Gravitational Field**

On Earth’s surface, the strength of the gravitational field is 9.80 N/kg, and its direction is toward Earth’s center. The field can be represented by a vector of length g pointing toward the center of the object producing the field. You can picture the gravitational field of Earth as a collection of vectors surrounding Earth and pointing toward it, as shown in the figure. Section 2-29

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**The Gravitational Field**

The strength of the field varies inversely with the square of the distance from the center of Earth. The gravitational field depends on Earth’s mass, but not on the mass of the object experiencing it. Section 2-30

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Two Kinds of Mass Mass is equal to the ratio of the net force exerted on an object to its acceleration. Mass related to the inertia of an object is called inertial mass. Inertial mass is equal to the net force exerted on the object divided by the acceleration of the object. Section 2-31

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Two Kinds of Mass The inertial mass of an object is measured by exerting a force on the object and measuring the object’s acceleration using an inertial balance. The more inertial mass an object has, the less it is affected by any force—the less acceleration it undergoes. Thus, the inertial mass of an object is a measure of the object’s resistance to any type of force. Section 2-32

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Two Kinds of Mass Mass as used in the law of universal gravitation determines the size of the gravitational force between two objects and is called gravitational mass. The gravitational mass of an object is equal to the distance between the objects squared, times the gravitational force, divided by the product of the universal gravitational constant, times the mass of the other object. Section 2-33

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Two Kinds of Mass Newton made the claim that inertial mass and gravitational mass are equal in magnitude. This hypothesis is called the principle of equivalence. All experiments conducted so far have yielded data that support this principle. Albert Einstein was also intrigued by the principle of equivalence and made it a central point in his theory of gravity. Section 2-34

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**Einstein’s Theory of Gravity**

Gravity is not a force, but an effect of space itself. Mass changes the space around it. Mass causes space to be curved, and other bodies are accelerated because of the way they follow this curved space. Section 2-35

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Deflection of Light Einstein’s theory predicts the deflection or bending of light by massive objects. Light follows the curvature of space around the massive object and is deflected. Section 2-36

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Deflection of Light Another result of general relativity is the effect on light from very massive objects. If an object is massive and dense enough, the light leaving it will be totally bent back to the object. No light ever escapes the object. These objects are called black holes. They have been detected as a result of their effect on nearby stars. Section 2-37

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Question 1 The period of a satellite orbiting Earth depends upon __________. A. the mass of the satellite B. the speed at which it is launched C. Earth’s radius D. the mass of Earth Section 2-38

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Answer 1 Reason: The period of a satellite orbiting Earth depends upon the mass of Earth. It also depends on the radius of the orbit. Section 2-39

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Question 2 The inertial mass of an object is measured by exerting a force on the object and measuring the object’s __________ using an inertial balance. A. gravitational force B. acceleration C. mass D. force Section 2-40

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Answer 2 Reason: The inertial mass of an object is measured by exerting a force on the object and measuring the object’s acceleration using an inertial balance. Section 2-41

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Question 3 Your weight __________ when you start at the surface of the Earth and move away from the Earth’s center. A. decreases B. increases C. becomes zero D. does not change Section 2-42

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Answer 3 Reason: When you start at Earth’s surface and move away from Earth’s center, the acceleration due to gravity reduces, hence decreasing your weight. Section 2-43

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End of Chapter

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**Universal Gravitation and Kepler’s Third Law**

Consider a planet orbiting the Sun. Newton's second law of motion, Fnet = ma, can be written as Fnet = mpac. Click the Back button to return to original slide. SS 1-1a

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**Universal Gravitation and Kepler’s Third Law**

In the equation on the previous slide, Fnet is the gravitational force, mp is the planet’s mass, and ac is the centripetal acceleration of the planet. For simplicity, assume circular orbits. Click the Back button to return to original slide. SS 1-1b

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**Universal Gravitation and Kepler’s Third Law**

Recall from your study of circular motion, that for a circular orbit, ac = 4π2r/T2. This means that Fnet = mpac may now be written as Fnet = mp4π2r/T2. In this equation, T is the time required for the planet to make one complete revolution around the Sun. Click the Back button to return to original slide. SS 1-1c

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**Universal Gravitation and Kepler’s Third Law**

In the equation Fnet = mp4π2r/T2, if you set the right side equal to the right side of the law of universal gravitation, you arrive at the following result: Click the Back button to return to original slide. SS 1-1d

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**Universal Gravitation and Kepler’s Third Law**

The period of a planet orbiting the Sun can be expressed as follows. The period of a planet orbiting the Sun is equal to 2π times the square root of the orbital radius cubed, divided by the product of the universal gravitational constant and the mass of the Sun. Click the Back button to return to original slide. SS 1-1e

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Importance of G The attractive gravitational force, Fg, between two bowling balls of mass 7.26 kg, with their centers separated by 0.30 m, can be calculated as follows: Click the Back button to return to original slide. SS 1-2

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Importance of G On Earth’s surface, the weight of the object of mass m, is a measure of Earth’s gravitational attraction: Fg = mg. If mE is Earth’s mass and rE its radius, then: This equation can be rearranged to get mE. Click the Back button to return to original slide. SS 1-3a

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Importance of G Using rE = 6.38×106 m, g = 9.80 m/s2, and G = 6.67×10−11 N·m2/kg2, the following result is obtained for Earth’s mass: Click the Back button to return to original slide. SS 1-3b

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**Callisto’s Distance from Jupiter**

Galileo measured the orbital sizes of Jupiter’s moons using the diameter of Jupiter as a unit of measure. He found that lo, the closest moon to Jupiter, had a period of 1.8 days and was 4.2 units from the center of Jupiter. Callisto, the fourth moon from Jupiter, had a period of 16.7 days. Using the same units that Galileo used, predict Callisto’s distance from Jupiter. Click the Back button to return to original slide. SS 1-4

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**Orbits of Planets and Satellites**

The centripetal acceleration of a satellite orbiting Earth is given by ac = v2/r. Newton’s second law, Fnet = mac, can thus be written as Fnet = mv2/r. Click the Back button to return to original slide. SS 2-1a

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**Orbits of Planets and Satellites**

If Earth’s mass is mE, then the above expression combined with Newton’s law of universal gravitation produces the following equation: Click the Back button to return to original slide. SS 2-1b

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**Orbits of Planets and Satellites**

Solving for the speed of a satellite in circular orbit around Earth, v, yields the following: Hence, speed of a satellite orbiting Earth is equal to the square root of the universal gravitational constant times the mass of Earth, divided by the radius of the orbit. Click the Back button to return to original slide. SS 2-1c

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**Acceleration Due to Gravity**

For a free-falling object, m, the following is true: Because, a = g and r = rE on Earth’s surface, the following equation can be written: Click the Back button to return to original slide. SS 2-2a

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**Acceleration Due to Gravity**

You found in the previous equation that for a free-falling object. Substituting the expression for mE yields the following: Click the Back button to return to original slide. SS 2-2b

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**Acceleration Due to Gravity**

Click the Back button to return to original slide. SS 2-2c

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Inertial Balance An inertial balance allows you to calculate the inertial mass of an object from the period (T) of the back-and- forth motion of the object. Calibration masses, such as the cylindrical ones shown in the picture, are used to create a graph of T2 versus the mass. The period of the unknown mass is then measured, and the inertial mass is determined from the calibration graph. Click the Back button to return to original slide. SS 2-3

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**Orbital Speed and Period**

Assume that a satellite orbits Earth 225 km above its surface. Given that the mass of Earth is 5.97×1024 kg and the radius of Earth is 6.38×106 m, what are the satellite’s orbital speed and period? Click the Back button to return to original slide. SS 2-4

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