2 1. What are the various elements depicted in this image that dates from 1800? (Answer: In the foreground are the Goddess of Liberty holding an American flag, a stone monument memorializing George Washington, and a small black boy dressed in Native American garb. In the background is Niagara Falls, which was an iconic American landmark. Beneath the falls are Native American hunters.)2. What purpose did an image like this serve in the United States in 1800? (Answer: Images like this one sought to represent all that was significant and representative of the new United States. This particular image includes its still unspoiled national landscape, its diverse population, its national flag, the Goddess of Liberty as a symbol of its unique republican government and culture, its national flag, and a monument to the nation’s most important military general and first president. It conveyed to American and international viewers the elements that served as points of national identity and pride.)3. All of the elements in this image served as symbols of America in Which of these lasted as iconic symbols of America over time, and which fell out of favor? Why? (Answer: Lady Liberty, the flag, presidential monuments, and geographical landmarks survived as iconic symbols over the long term. Americans continued to embrace these symbols because they served as points of pride. Native Americans and African Americans were not used to symbolize American pride and identity over time. They probably fell out of favor because they represented the nation’s history of genocide and slavery, which were not points of national pride.)
3 I. The Political Crisis of the 1790s A. The Federalists Implement the Constitution 1. Devising the New Government 2. The Bill of RightsI. The Political Crisis of the 1790sA. The Federalists Implement the Constitution1. Devising the New Government – Washington received the highest number of votes from the electoral college and was elected president in 1788; John Adams was elected vice president; Washington insisted that only the president had the right to remove appointed government officials. He appointed a cabinet: T. Jefferson (head of Dept. of State), A. Hamilton (head of Treasury Dept.), and H. Knox (Sec. of War). Judiciary Act of 1789 established a federal district court in each state with three circuit courts to hear appeals; Supreme Court would have final judicial say.2. The Bill of Rights – Added to the Constitution; Madison (now a member of Congress) submitted 19 amendments; 10 were approved by 1791; these 10 consisted the nation’s first Bill of Rights to protect individual citizens against an oppressive national government.
4 I. The Political Crisis of the 1790s B. Hamilton’s Financial Program1. Public Credit: Redemption and Assumption2. Creating a National Bank3. Raising Revenue Through TariffsI. The Political Crisis of the 1790sB. Hamilton’s Financial Program1. Public Credit: Redemption and Assumption – (January 1790) Was extremely controversial because it would create a permanent national debt; suggested that Congress redeem at face value the $55 million in Confederation securities held by foreign and domestic investors to create good credit; critics said this policy would unfairly increase the profits of speculators; Hamilton wanted to improve public credit by having the national government assume the war debt of the states.2. Creating a National Bank – (December 1790) Hamilton argued that a national bank would be jointly owned by private stockholders and the national government; bank would make loans to merchants, handle government funds, and issue bills of credit; Jefferson and Madison opposed a national bank (preferred a strict interpretation of Constitution) on the grounds that the government did not have the right/power to create such an institution.3. Raising Revenue Through Tariffs – Hamilton’s “Report on Manufactures” (December 1791) urged the expansion of American manufacturing; called for Congress to impose excise taxes to pay the interest on the national debt; advocated moderate revenue tariffs and not protective tariffs.
6 I. The Political Crisis of the 1790s C. Jefferson’s Agrarian Vision1. Southern planters and western farmersI. The Political Crisis of the 1790sC. Jefferson’s Agrarian Vision1. Southern planters and western farmers – By 1793, the Federalists had split over Hamilton’s financial plans for the nation; southern Federalists supported Jefferson and Madison (called themselves Democratic Republicans or simply Republicans), while northerners supported Hamilton (Federalists); Jefferson argued that the wage-labor of the North could not sustain a republican nation; therefore, he focused instead on yeoman farmers and their families, whose work he argued could support the nation as well as European countries. The French Revolution’s disruption of European farming lent credibility to Jefferson’s ideas.
8 I. The Political Crisis of the 1790s D. The French Revolution Divides Americans 1. Ideological Politics 2. Jay’s Treaty 3. The Haitian RevolutionI. The Political Crisis of the 1790sD. The French Revolution Divides Americans1. Ideological Politics – Americans made large profits from the French Revolution but argued over the ideologies that led to the revolution; some Americans supported the Jacobin ideas of social egalitarian/democratic society; Americans with strong Christian beliefs disliked the Jacobins closing the churches and feared a similar social rebellion in the U.S.; still other Americans were critical of the revolution’s bloodshed. In 1794, western Pennsylvania farmers mounted the Whiskey Rebellion to protest Hamilton’s excise tax on alcohol.2. Jay’s Treaty – Disagreements between the British and Americans over shipments to France led to Jay’s Treaty (1793/1794), accepting Britain’s right to stop neutral ships; in return, Americans could make claims to the British for illegal seizures and required the British to remove their troops and Indian agents from the Northwest Territory; was seen as a decidedly pro-British treaty.3. The Haitian Revolution – Saint-Domingue was a French plantation colony in the West Indies; elite planters ruled a population of 40,000 free whites; some 28,000 free blacks were excluded from white privileges; a half million black slaves worked the sugar plantations; French Revolution intensified conflicts on the island and inspired a massive slave uprising that aimed to abolish slavery. Toussaint L’Ouverture seized control of the country and in 1803 proclaimed the independent nation of Haiti, the Atlantic World’s first black republic. Haitian refugees flood into the U.S.; American slaveholders feared contagion of slave revolution; many Americans saw Haiti as a perversion of the republican ideal.
10 I. The Political Crisis of the 1790s E. The Rise of Political Parties 1. Public interest 2. The Naturalization, Alien, and Sedition Acts of The “Revolution of 1800”I. The Political Crisis of the 1790sE. The Rise of Political Parties1. Public interest – Many Americans believed organized political parties were dangerous because they feared that they did not serve the public interest; debate over Hamilton’s financial policies led to further divide among politicians. By the 1796 election, the two groups were holding public festivals and processions to celebrate their perspectives and candidates; Adams was elected president; maritime disputes with the British erupted in the XYZ Affair.2. The Naturalization, Alien, and Sedition Acts of 1798 – Federalists took a hard line against Republic critics; they passed Naturalization Act (lengthened residency requirement for American citizenship from five to fourteen years), Alien Act (authorized deportation of foreigners), and Sedition Act (prohibited publication of insults or attacks on president or members of Congress), which limited individual rights and threatened the fledgling party system; Federalist prosecutors arrested many Republican newspapers editors and politicians and jailed some of them; resulting constitutional crisis led Kentucky and Virginia legislatures to declare Alien and Sedition Acts to be “unauthoritative, void, and of no force”; the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions set forth a states’ rights interpretation of the Constitution, asserting that the states had a “right to judge” the legitimacy of national laws.3. The “Revolution of 1800” – The presidential election of 1800 was an intense partisan contest; Federalists attacked Jefferson as an irresponsible radical; election was contested, but Federalist Hamilton supported Jefferson, leading in new Republican era; bloodless transfer of power showed that popularly elected governments could be changed in an orderly way, even in times of bitter partisan conflict.
13 II. A Republican Empire Is Born A. Sham Treaties and Indian Lands 1. The Treaty of Greenville 2. Assimilation RejectedII. A Republican Empire Is BornA. Sham Treaties and Indian Lands1. The Treaty of Greenville – Disagreements continued in the West; government asserted control over trans-Appalachian west, arguing that the natives who lived there were “conquered”; Indians disagreed because they had not signed the Treaty of Paris; native peoples were forced to cede huge tracts of land in New York and Pennsylvania; land speculators used liquor and bribes to take additional land; conflict arose between allying native groups, white settlers, and the U.S. Army. The Treaty of Greenville ceded most of Ohio to U.S. and started a wave of migration from the east; by 1805, Ohio was a new state with more than 100,000 people.2. Assimilation Rejected – To prevent conflict, U.S. government encouraged assimilation to white culture; some converted to Christianity but kept their cultural practices.
15 1. Who is pictured in this painting of the signing of the Treaty of Greenville? (Answer: On the right are Americans—General Anthony Wayne and some of his fellow officers, with random American soldiers in the far and central left. Left—probably Miami Chief Little Turtle, Wyondot Chief Tarhe the Crane, and one other Indian leader.)2. What does the painting suggest about how the terms of the treaty were drafted? Do you see this as realistic or unrealistic? (Answer: Landscape indicates treaty was written/signed in the outdoors in an idyllic setting. Front Indian’s stance and arm gestures suggest he is telling the kneeling white American what to write. Generals’ hats off, hands behind backs, calm demeanor suggests they are respectful and even passive participants. Actually, treaty favored Americans and was drafted/signed after Indians’ defeat at Fallen Timbers; Americans, not Indians, dictated terms. Thousands of Indians were present, and they were likely the passive participants. Likely took place in a more formal setting.)3. This painting was made by an American artist who clearly romanticized the scene. How might a Native American artist have depicted the same event? (Answer: Indians would have likely shown their defeat, perhaps the effects of fighting and bloodshed and coercion.)
16 II. A Republican Empire Is Born B. Migration and the Changing Farm Economy 1. Southern Migrants 2. Exodus from New England 3. Innovation on Eastern FarmsII. A Republican Empire Is BornB. Migration and the Changing Farm Economy1. Southern Migrants – Two “streams”: 1) white tenants and yeomen farmers flocked into Kentucky and Tennessee, then later into Ohio, Indiana, Illinois; 2) southern planters and slaves from the Carolinas moved toward Gulf of Mexico (Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana) to plant cotton.2. Exodus from New England – Left New England for NH, VT, ME, NY in search of land for their children.3. Innovation on Eastern Farms – In the North, farmers switched from grain to potatoes; bought farm equipment; began to adopt year-round farming schedules; worked harder and longer; improved standard of living.16
19 II. A Republican Empire Is Born C. The Jefferson Presidency 1. Policies 2. Marbury v. MadisonII. A Republican Empire is BornC. The Jefferson Presidency1. Policies – Jefferson’s presidency began the “Virginia Dynasty” of Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe (1801–1825); all three actively supported westward expansion; Jefferson reduced the size of the permanent army.2. Marbury v. Madison – 1803 Supreme Court decision. The Supreme Court did not have the constitutional power to enforce legislation but did have the power to review legislation and interpret the Constitution.
20 II. A Republican Empire is Born D. Jefferson and the West 1. The Louisiana Purchase 2. Secessionist Schemes 3. Lewis and Clark Meet the Mandans and SiouxII. A Republican Empire is BornD. Jefferson and the West1. The Louisiana Purchase – Jefferson wanted it to be easier for farm families to acquire land in the West; in 1801, Napoleon signed a secret treaty with Spain that regained Louisiana for France; coupled with revolt in Haiti against French rule, Jefferson began to fear relationship with France; made efforts to purchase New Orleans (ultimately all of Louisiana); Jefferson believed this would force Indian population further west.2. Secessionist Schemes – Some New England Federalists considered leaving the Union after Louisiana Purchase to form a confederacy of northeastern states, supported by Vice President Aaron Burr; Hamilton accused Burr of planning to destroy the Union; a duel occurred between the men and Hamilton was killed; Burr was later acquitted of treason.3. Lewis and Clark Meet the Mandans and Sioux – In 1804, Jefferson sent his secretary Meriwether Lewis and army officer William Clark to explore the Louisiana region; came into contact with Mandan and Sioux peoples; continued traveling further (1,300 miles) into unknown territories; gave to Jefferson the first maps of the immense western wilderness and a detailed account of its resources and inhabitants.
21 1. What is the central action of this image 1. What is the central action of this image? (Answer: American naval ships are bombarding the city of Tripoli in North Africa. Large warships bomb the city while small gunboats defend the fleet. In the background, Tripoli burns.)2. What does this image reveal about the state of the American military during the Democratic-Republican Jefferson administration? (Answer: Jefferson was a proponent of small government and small federal expenditures, and yet this image reveals that the U.S. Navy was robust enough to travel to the Mediterranean and wage a serious fight in the Barbary States. The image depicts an impressive number of vessels, many sailors, and a considerable amount of ammunition. Ultimately, Jefferson did sign a peace treaty with the Barbary States precisely because the battle was expensive.)
23 III. The War of 1812 and the Transformation of Politics A. Conflict in the Atlantic and the West 1. The Embargo of Western War HawksIII. The War of 1812 and the Transformation of PoliticsA. Conflict in the Atlantic and the West1. The Embargo of 1807 – Napoleonic War in Europe and the Atlantic eventually brought Americans into the conflict; the British navy impressed Americans into service from merchant ships; Embargo Act of 1807 kept American ships from leaving ports until the French and British restrictions had been lifted; American economy weakened; Madison was elected in 1808 and continued to restrict American trade.2. Western War Hawks – Republicans from the West blamed Britain; Shawnee war chief Tecumseh rebuilt the Western Confederacy (Indians) and mobilized his people (and others) for war; violence broke out between native peoples and white Americans; British aided Indians; war broke out between U.S. and Britain in June 1812, with U.S. arguing that Britain had violated the nation’s commercial rights.
26 III. The War of 1812 and the Transformation of Politics B. The War of Federalists Oppose the War 2. Peace Overtures and a Final VictoryIII. The War of 1812 and the Transformation of PoliticsB. The War of 18121. Federalists Oppose the War – U.S. invasion of British Canada failed; U.S. stayed on the offensive in the West; in East, New England Federalists opposed the war completely and prohibited invasion of Canada; in the North, war went poorly; in the Southwest, Andrew Jackson (slaveholding planter) and a force of Tennessee militiamen successfully defeated the British and Spanish-supported Indians; New Englanders continued to oppose the war.2. Peace Overtures and a Final Victory – War cost the U.S. $88 million and increased the national debt to $127 million; by 1815, Britain called for peace; the Treaty of Ghent (1814) put borders back to prewar; Andrew Jackson’s victory of British forces in the Battle of New Orleans occurred before news of peace treaty reached him; battle lifted American morale and made Jackson a national hero.
29 III. The War of 1812 and the Transformation of Politics C. The Federalist Legacy 1. Marshall’s Federalist Law 2. Asserting National Supremacy 3. Upholding Vested Property Rights 4. The Diplomacy of John Quincy Adams 5. Monroe DoctrineIII. The War of 1812 and the Transformation of PoliticsC. The Federalist Legacy1. Marshall’s Federalist Law – John Marshall, Supreme Court Chief Justice; three main principles influenced Marshall’s thinking: 1) judicial authority, 2) supremacy of natural law, and 3) traditional property rights.2. Asserting National Supremacy – Dominance of national over state statutes was again was asserted by the Marshall Court.3. Upholding Vested Property Rights – Fearing “tyranny of the majority,” Marshall advocated protecting the property rights of the individual.4. The Diplomacy of John Quincy Adams – Citizens and political leaders embraced the Republican Party; John Quincy Adams was a member of the Republican Party before the War of 1812 and had negotiated the Treaty of Ghent; brilliantly served two terms as Secretary of State under President Monroe.5. Monroe Doctrine – John Quincy Adams was the architect of the doctrine, which stated the Americas were no longer open for colonization from European powers and pledged that the U.S. would not “interfere in the internal concerns” of European nations.