2 Learning ObjectivesLO4.1 Describe characteristics of cultural intelligence, its importance for global business leaders, and approaches to developing it. LO4.2 Explain the major cultural dimensions and related communication practices. LO4.3 Name and describe key categories of business etiquette in the intercultural communication process.LO4.1 Describe characteristics of cultural intelligence, its importance for global business leaders, and approaches to developing it.LO4.2 Explain the major cultural dimensions and related communication practices.LO4.3 Name and describe key categories of business etiquette in the intercultural communication process.
3 Developing Cultural Intelligence Cultural intelligence (CQ)a measure of your ability to work with and adapt to members of other cultures.In Chapter 2, you read about emotional intelligence (EQ), your ability to manage emotions in interpersonal situations. Similarly, cultural intelligence (CQ) is a measure of your ability to work with and adapt to members of other cultures. Like EQ (but unlike IQ), CQ can be developed and improved over time with training, experience, and conscious effort.
4 Developing Cultural Intelligence Cultureincludes the shared values, norms, rules, and behaviors of an identifiable group of people who share a common history and communication system.national, organizational, teamCulture includes the shared values, norms, rules, and behaviors of an identifiable group of people who share a common history and communication system. There are many types of culture, such as national, organizational, and team. We discuss principles of intercultural communication in this chapter in the context of national cultures, which tend to be more permanent and enduring than other types of culture.
5 Cultural Intelligence in the Workplace Table 4.2When people with high CQ encounter unfamiliar encounters, they possess a variety of the skills displayed in Table 4.2 and discussed throughout the chapter.
6 Respect, Recognize, and Appreciate Cultural Differences Cultural intelligence is built on viewing other cultures as holding legitimate and valid views of and approaches to managing business and workplace relationshipsCultural intelligence is built on attitudes of respect and recognition of other cultures. This means that you view other cultures as holding legitimate and valid views of and approaches to managing business and workplace relationships.
7 Be Curious about Other Cultures Study abroadLearn a languageDevelop friendships with international students on your campusTake an interest in culture and routinely learn about itAs a college student, you are in a stage of life that gives you unique opportunities to acquire cross-cultural experiences. Consider the following options: studying abroad, learning a language, developing friendships with international students on campus, and taking an interest in and learning about a particular culture.
8 Take an Interest in a Culture and Routinely Learn About It Watch films, television, documentaries, news, and other video of the cultureFollow the business culture of a countryTake courses and attend events related to particular culturesMake friends with people who live in other cultures and communicate online● Watch films, television, documentaries, news, and other video of the culture . It’s increasingly easy to access video of other cultures. This allows you to observe many aspects of the culture in context with visual and auditory cues.● Follow the business culture of a country . Many websites contain global business news sections with both text and videos. For example, consider the following:Bloomberg Businessweek, CNBC, Time, Foreign Exchange, and CIBERweb.● Take courses and attend events related to particular cultures . Your university offers numerous opportunities, including taking courses about international and intercultural topics and attending symposia that feature international speakers.● Make friends with people who live in other cultures and communicate online . You might try to make friends abroad and communicate frequently via , chat, and online calls.
9 Avoid Inappropriate Stereotypes Projected cognitive similaritythe tendency to assume others have the same norms and values as your own cultural group.Outgroup homogeneity effectthe tendency to think members of other groups are all the same.Stereotyping about cultures can also be dysfunctional, counterproductive, and even hurtful. People tend to form two types of stereotypes when interacting with members of other cultures: projected cognitive similarity and outgroup homogeneity effect . Projected cognitive similarity is the tendency to assume others have the same norms and values as your own cultural group. This occurs when people project their own cultural norms and values to explain the behaviors they see in others. Outgroup homogeneity effect is the tendency to think members of other groups are all the same. Psychologically, this approach minimizes the mental effort needed to get to know people of other groups. Practically speaking, it is counterproductive to developing effective working relationships with members of other cultures.
10 Perceptions that Members of Various Cultures Have about Americans Table 4.3Members of other cultures often form stereotypes of Americans based on news stories as well as popular culture (i.e., films, television shows, music). Typically, most people around the world hold mixed views of Americans (see Table 4.3 ). Even in countries where the majority of adults view Americans as dishonest or greedy, they also view Americans as hardworking and inventive.
11 Adjust Your Conceptions of Time People high in CQ show patienceThey understand that most tasks take longer when working across cultures because more time is needed to understand one another and cooperate effectivelyPeople high in CQ show patience. They understand that most tasks take longer when working across cultures because more time is needed to understand one another and cooperate effectively. Furthermore, many cross-cultural work projects are conducted across great distances. Naturally, this requires additional time due to the communication tools and organizational decision-making processes.
12 Manage Language Differences Avoid quickly judging that others have limited communication proficiencyArticulate clearly and slow downAvoid slang and jargonGive others time to express themselvesUse interpreters as necessary● Avoid quickly judging that others have limited communication proficiency . Many non-native English speakers take time to warm up. The first moments—or in some cases days or weeks—of your interactions with them are not representative of their real language abilities.● Articulate clearly and slow down . Many Americans inadvertently run their words together. Make sure you pronounce each word distinctly and slow your pace slightly.● Avoid slang and jargon . Slang and jargon can be particularly confusing to members of other cultures.● Give others time to express themselves . Allow those with limited English ability enough time to process their thoughts into English.● Use interpreters as necessary . In some situations, you will rely on interpreters. Spend some time in advance getting to know the interpreter’s abilities and preferences for facilitating an exchange.
13 Understanding Cultural Dimensions fairly permanent and enduring sets of related norms and valuesIn this section, we describe recent research on cultural norms and values among businesspeople throughout the world. This research, conducted by the GLOBE group (which includes dozens of business researchers around the world), is based on surveys and interviews of about 20,000 business leaders and managers in 62 countries Cultural dimensions are fairly permanent and enduring sets of related norms and values.
14 Understanding Cultural Dimensions Individualism and collectivismEgalitarianism and hierarchy,AssertivenessPerformance orientationFuture orientationHumane orientationUncertainty avoidanceGender egalitarianismThe GLOBE group found that cultures can be grouped into eight dimensions. They are classified as (1) individualism and collectivism, (2) egalitarianism and hierarchy,(3) assertiveness, (4) performance orientation, (5) future orientation, (6) humane orientation, (7) uncertainty avoidance, and (8) gender egalitarianism. By understanding these eight dimensions, you can get a good sense of the underlying motivations and goals that impact acceptable behaviors within a culture.
15 Individualism and Collectivism a mind-set that prioritizes independence more highly than interdependence, emphasizing individual goals over group goals, and valuing choice more than obligationFigure 4.2Individualism refers to a mind-set that prioritizes independence more highly than interdependence, emphasizing individual goals over group goals, and valuing choice more than obligation. Figure 4.2 displays country rankings for individualism and collectivism in society. Of the countries we are considering here, China has the highest ranking for collectivism and the Netherlands has the lowest.
16 Individualism and Collectivism a mind-set that prioritizes interdependence more highly than independence, emphasizing group goals over individual goals, and valuing obligation more than choiceFigure 4.3Collectivism refers to a mind-set that prioritizes interdependence more highly than independence, emphasizing group goals over individual goals, and valuing obligation more than choice. Figure 4.3 displays country rankings for individualism and collectivism within companies. In many cases these rankings differ from norms and values in society at large.
17 Communication Practices in High Individualist and High Collectivist Cultures Table 4.4Table 4.4 shows communication practices normally associated with high individualism and high collectivism.
18 Egalitarianism and Hierarchy Egalitarian culturesPeople tend to distribute and share power evenly, minimize status differences, and minimize special privileges and opportunities for people just because they have higher authorityAll cultures develop norms for how power is distributed. In egalitarian cultures, people tend to distribute and share power evenly, minimize status differences, and minimize special privileges and opportunities for people just because they have higher authority.
19 Egalitarianism and Hierarchy Figure 4.5Hierarchical culturespeople expect power differences, follow leaders without questioning them, and feel comfortable with leaders receiving special privileges and opportunitiesIn hierarchical cultures, people expect power differences, follow leaders without questioning them, and feel comfortable with leaders receiving special privileges and opportunities. Power tends to be concentrated at the top. Figure 4.5 displays country rankings for hierarchy and egalitarianism.
20 Communication Practices in Egalitarian and Hierarchical Cultures Table 4.5Table 4.5 presents communication practices normally associated with hierarchy and egalitarianism.
21 Performance Orientation Performance orientation (PO)the extent to which a community encourages and rewards innovation, high standards, and performance improvementFigure 4.6Performance orientation (PO) is “the extent to which a community encourages and rewards innovation, high standards, and performance improvement.” Of all cultural dimensions, societies cherish this one the most, especially in business. Figure 4.6 displays country rankings for performance orientation.
22 Communication in High Performance and Low Performance Societies Table 4.6Table 4.6 presents communication practices normally associated with high- and low-performance orientation.
23 Future Orientation Future orientation (FO) involves the degree to which cultures are willing to sacrifice current wants to achieve future needs.Figure 4.7Future orientation (FO) involves the degree to which cultures are willing to sacrifice current wants to achieve future needs. Cultures with low FO (or present-oriented cultures) tend to enjoy being in the moment and spontaneity. They are less anxious about the future and often avoid the planning and sacrifices necessary to reach future goals.By contrast, cultures with high FO are imaginative about the future and have the discipline to carefully plan for and sacrifice current needs and wants to reach future goals. Figure 4.7 displays country rankings for future orientation.
24 Communication Practices in High and Low Future Orientation Cultures Table 4.7Table 4.7 presents communication practices normally associated with high and low future orientation.
25 Assertiveness Assertiveness deals with the level of confrontation and directness that is considered appropriate and productiveFigure 4.8The cultural dimension of assertiveness deals with the level of confrontation and directness that is considered appropriate and productive. 41 Typically, North Americans and Western Europeans are the most assertive in business situations, whereas Asians tend to be less assertive. Figure 4.8 displays country rankings for assertiveness.
26 Communication Practices in High and Low Assertiveness Cultures Table 4.8Table 4.8 presents communication practices normally associated with high and low assertiveness.
27 Humane Orientation Humane orientation (HO) the degree to which an organization or society encourages and rewards individuals for being fair, altruistic, friendly, generous, caring, and kindFigure 4.9Humane orientation (HO) is “the degree to which an organization or society encourages and rewards individuals for being fair, altruistic, friendly, generous, caring, and kind.” In high HO cultures, people demonstrate that others belong and are welcome. In low HO cultures, the values of pleasure, comfort, and self-enjoyment take precedence over displays of generosity and kindness.
28 Communication Styles in High and Low Humane Orientation Cultures Table 4.9Table 4.9 presents communication practices normally associated with high and low humane orientation.
29 Uncertainty Avoidance Uncertainty avoidance (UA)refers to how cultures socialize members to feel in uncertain, novel, surprising, or extraordinary situations.Figure 4.10Uncertainty avoidance (UA) refers to how cultures socialize members to feel in uncertain, novel, surprising, or extraordinary situations. In high UA cultures, people feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and seek orderliness, consistency, structure, and formalized procedures. In low UA cultures, people feel comfortable with uncertainty. Figure 4.10 displays country rankings for uncertainty avoidance.
30 Communication Styles in High and Low Uncertainty Avoidance Cultures Table 4.10Table 4.10 presents communication practices normally associated with high and low uncertainty avoidance.
31 Gender Egalitarianism deals with the division of roles between men and women in societyGender egalitarianism deals with the division of roles between men and women in society. In high gender-egalitarianism cultures, men and women are encouraged to occupy the same professional roles and leadership positions. In low gender-egalitarianism cultures, men and women are expected to occupy different roles in society.
32 Communication Practices in High and Low Gender-Egalitarianism Cultures Table 4.11Table 4.11 you will find communication practices normally associated with high and low gender-egalitarianism cultures.
33 Building and Maintaining Cross-Cultural Work Relationships Establish Trust and Show EmpathyAdopt a Learner Mind-setBuild a Co-Culture of Cooperation and InnovationThus far, we have focused on aspects of cultural intelligence primarily related to understanding other cultures. In this section, we focus on the process of building relationships and co-creating success with members of other cultures. This process may involve communicating and working in entirely new ways for you and those of other cultures.
34 Etiquette and Customs in the BRIC Countries Table 4.13In Table 4.13 , you will find examples from Brazil, Russia, India, and China (often called the BRIC countries because of their expected strategic importance for business during the 21st century). This table includes the types of customs and etiquette you should become aware of before traveling to another country for business, including appropriate versus taboo topics of conversation, conversation style, punctuality and meetings, dining, touching and proximity, business dress, and gift giving.