Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Individual Behavior, Personality, and Values.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Individual Behavior, Personality, and Values."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Individual Behavior, Personality, and Values

2 2-2 MARS Model of Individual Behavior Individual behavior and results SituationalfactorsSituationalfactors Values Personality Perceptions Emotions Attitudes Stress Values Personality Perceptions Emotions Attitudes Stress Role perceptions MotivationMotivation AbilityAbility

3 2-3 MARS Model Elements  Motivation Internal forces that affect a person’s voluntary choice of behavior  Ability Natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task  Role perceptions Beliefs about what behavior is required to achieve the desired results  Situational Factors Environmental conditions beyond the individual’s short- term control that constrain or facilitate behavior

4 2-4 Defining Personality  Relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize a person, along with the psychological processes behind those characteristics External traits – observable behaviors Internal states – thoughts, values, etc inferred from behaviors Some variability, adjust to suit the situation

5 2-5 Five-Factor Personality Model (CANOE) Outgoing, talkative Sensitive, flexible Careful, dependable Courteous, caring Anxious, hostile ConscientiousnessConscientiousness AgreeablenessAgreeableness NeuroticismNeuroticism Openness to Experience ExtraversionExtraversion

6 2-6 Five-Factor Personality and Organizational Behavior  Conscientiousness and emotional stability Motivational components of personality Strongest personality predictors of performance  Extroversion Linked to sales and mgt performance Related to social interaction and persuasion  Agreeableness Effective in jobs requiring cooperation and helpfulness  Openness to experience Linked to higher creativity and adaptability to change

7 2-7 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Extroversion versus introversion similar to five-factor dimension  Sensing versus intuition collecting information through senses versus through intuition, inspiration or subjective sources  Thinking versus feeling processing and evaluating information using rational logic versus personal values  Judging versus perceiving orient themselves to the outer world order and structure or flexibility and spontaneity

8 2-8 Self-Concept Definition and Elements  An individual’s self-beliefs and self-evaluations Guides individual decisions and behaviour  Three C’s of self-concept 1. Complexity -- People have multiple self-concepts 2. Consistency -- similar personality and values across multiple selves 3. Clarity -- Clearly and confidently described, internally consistent, and stable across time.

9 2-9 Four “Selves” of Self-Concept  Self-enhancement Promoting and protecting our positive self-view  Self-verification Affirming our existing self-concept  Self-evaluation Evaluating ourselves through self-esteem, self- efficacy and locus of control  Social self Defining ourselves in terms of group membership

10 2-10 Schwartz’s Values Model  Openness to change – motivation to pursue innovative ways  Conservation -- motivation to preserve the status quo  Self-enhancement -- motivated by self-interest  Self-transcendence -- motivation to promote welfare of others and nature

11 2-11 Values and Behavior  Habitual behavior usually consistent with values, but conscious behavior less so because values are abstract constructs  Decisions and behavior are linked to values when: Mindful of our values Have logical reasons to apply values in that situation Situation does not interfere

12 2-12 Values Across Cultures  Individualism Value personal freedom, self-sufficiency, control over themselves, being appreciated for unique qualities  Collectivism Value group membership and harmonious relationships within the group  Power distance Value/accept unequal distribution of power in a society  Uncertainty avoidance Value/tolerate ambiguity and uncertainty (low UA) or feel threatened by it (high UA)  Achievement-nurturing Value value assertiveness, competitiveness, and materialism (achievement) vs. human interaction and caring (nurturing)

13 2-13 Utilitarianism Individual Rights Greatest good for the greatest number of people Fundamental entitlements in society Distributive Justice People who are similar should receive similar benefits Three Ethical Principles

14 2-14 Influences on Ethical Conduct  Moral intensity degree that issue demands ethical principles  Ethical sensitivity ability to recognize the presence and determine the relative importance of an ethical issue  Situational influences competitive pressures and other conditions affect ethical behaviour

Download ppt "Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Individual Behavior, Personality, and Values."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google