4 Establish rules of conduct Knowing the law helps us to avoid disputes before they arise. Also, the law serves as a problem-solving toolExamples: contracts for vehicle purchases specifies what buyer and seller receive; landlord/tenant relations
5 Provide a system of enforcement Laws must be enforced (police and the courts)Examples: The police may charge an individual for breaking a particular law, and that individual would have to go to court to pay the consequences
6 Protect rights and freedoms A right is something you are entitled toAn obligation is something you must doThe law encourages the protection of the rights of citizens (tolerance and respect)Rights cannot be limited unless there is a solid legal reason for doing so.Examples: freedom of expression vs. verbally disrespecting someone
7 Protect society from harm Laws define what we consider wrong and set out punishment for those who break the lawExample: carrying an unlicensed handgun (criminal law), labour and occupational safety laws (civil laws)
8 Resolve disputes Laws settle conflicts (negotiation or court system) Examples: being sued for trespassing on someone’s property
10 Two Basic types of law in Canada Substantive LawLaws that set out the rights and obligations of each person in societySubstantive law allows Canadians to own property and enjoy the rights that come from ownershipProcedural LawLaws that outline the steps and procedures involved in protecting and enforcing the rights given under substantive lawAn example would be the procedures of arrest, jury selection or the steps involved in preparing a legally binding contract
12 A law that makes it illegal to assault another person
13 A law that outlines the steps to follow in making an arrest
14 A law that makes it illegal to possess a controlled drug
15 A law that outlines the steps in obtaining a search warrant
16 Substantive Law comes in two types – Public and Private Law
17 Public LawControls the relationship between the government and the people. It represents laws that apply to all individuals.
18 Types of Public LawCriminal Law – series of rules passed by federal Parliament to prohibit or prevent certain actions such as murder, assault, theft, break & enter etc . . .
19 Types of Public LawConstitutional Law – laws that set out the structure of government, especially the divisions of power between the provincial and federal governments
20 Types of Public LawAdministrative Law – governs the relationship between citizens and government & public agencies (i.e. Liquor Control Board, CRTC, Employment Insurance Comm.)
21 Private law (also known as civil law) Outlines the rights and responsibilities of private individuals and organizations. In a private (civil) law case, the person who starts the lawsuit is called the plaintiff, and the person who is being sued is called the defendant. The plaintiff sues because he or she believes that the defendant has caused him or her harm, loss, or injury.
22 Types of Private Law (also called “Civil” Law) Family Law – governs relationships between persons living as spouses and between parents and children
23 Types of Private LawContract Law – a contract is an agreement between 2 or more persons which imposes rights and duties on those parties. As simple as the purchase of a CD or as complex as the leasing of a jumbo aircraft
24 Types of Private LawTort Law – a tort is a wrong which one person commits against another. It gives remedies to those who have been injured by the intention or negligence of others
25 Types of Private LawProperty Law – governs the relationships between individuals relating to real property (land and buildings) and personal property (cars, bank accounts etc. . . )
26 Types of Private LawLabour Law – covers the relationship between employers and employees in terms of rights and obligations. Issues include employment contracts, grievances, etc.
28 The Divisions of Canadian law Substantive Law (Statute Law and Case Law)Public LawCriminal LawConstitutional LawAdministrative LawPrivate LawFamily LawContract LawTort LawProperty LawLabour LawProcedural Law (Rules)
29 PUBLIC OR PRIVATE LAW?A youth is arrested for committing a break and enter.
30 A store owner agrees to sell you a chocolate bar at a specified price.
31 Your job as a cashier pays you at the provincial minimum-wage rate.
32 You are arrested for underage drinking in a public park.
33 You sue a doctor for causing you extensive throat injury while operating to remove your tonsils.
34 Your parents have divorced and agree on issues related to custody and support payments.
35 Your parents are considering buying a new home or leasing a new apartment.
36 You attend a demonstration and are arrested for unlawful assembly.