2 Expository Texts include: text books,non-fiction trade (library) books,newspaper & magazine articles,directions,essays,speeches,user manuals (how-to guides),government documents (such as the driver’s license test booklet).
3 There are certain elements found in expository text, each type of element makes its own demands on the reader:description,sequence,comparison,cause & effect,problem & solution,proposition & support.
4 DescriptionThe author lists characteristics, features, and examples to describe a subject.Have wingsuse soundwavesthey are mammalsThey flyeat insectsBatssleep in daytimehang upside downdifferentkinds
5 Description Signal Words Signal to Reader Such as, for example, for instance, most important, in front, beside, nearA list of characteristics will follow
6 SequenceThe author lists items or events in numerical or chronological order.Helps the reader understand how events are relatedAlmost 300 malescompeted in the1896 OlympicsModern Olympicsbegan in 1896Olympics endedin 394 A.D.Olympics beganin 276 B.C.
7 Sequence Signal Words Signal to Reader First, second, third, before, on (date), not long after, after that, at the same time, finally, thenA sequence of events or steps in a process is being described
8 ComparisonThe author explains how two or more things are alike or different.no snowwarmer temperaturesflowersbaby animalsEaster & 4th of Julyseasons – sun shinessports are playedSummer and Wintersnowcolder temperaturesno flowers bloomingbears hibernateChristmas & New Years
9 Comparison Signal Words Signal to Reader Like, unlike, but, in contrast, on the other hand, however, also, too, as well asLikenesses and differences are being presented and/or discussed
10 Cause & EffectThe author explains one or more causes and the resulting effect or effects.
11 Cause and Effect Signal Words Signal to Reader Therefore, so, this led to, as a result, because, if…then…, consequently, cause, effect, in order to, sinceEvidence of causes and effects will be given
12 Problem & SolutionThe author states a problem and lists one or more solutions for the problem.
13 Problem and Solution Signal Words Signal to Reader Solution, solve, effect, hopeful, concern, challenge, resolveProblems AND solutions will be discussed. With problem and solution there is ALWAYS a solution
14 Proposition & SupportThe author makes a claim/statement and supports it with details
15 Proposition & Support Signal Words Signal to Reader Clearly, logically, surely, in conclusion, thereforeA claim will be made and details will be given to support the claim. Author is trying to persuade
16 Marking the TextIn order to identify which type of expository text you are reading and to determine the author’s purpose, it is important to mark the text. When marking the text for nonfiction there are three steps to follow.
17 #1,2,3 Step 1 Number the paragraphs Do this first as it will give you a reference point when you are reading#1,2,3
18 Step 2Circle key terms, cited authors, and other essential words or numbersTo identify key terms consider if the word is repeated, defined by the author, used to explain an idea, a central concept, or relevant to the reading purpose
19 Step 3Underline the author’s claims and other information that is relevant to the reading purposeClaim: An arguable statement that should be supported with data, facts, and other backingClaims can be anywhere in the textThere may be more than one claim