Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Section 2 Emma Hubka, Julia Howell, Nell DheToursey Brennan, Madeline Hatesohl."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 3 Section 2 Emma Hubka, Julia Howell, Nell DheToursey Brennan, Madeline Hatesohl
Key Terms and People ● Ming Dynasty - Ruled China between 1368-1644. Important developments during their reign. ● Hongwu - first Ming emperor, commanded the rebel army that drove the Mongols out of China ● Yonglo - Ming emperor between 1404-1424, moved the capital to Peking aka Bejing ● Zheng He - a Chinese Muslim Admiral and led seven voyages ● Manchus - group of people who originally lived in Manchuria and formed the Qing Dynasty ● Qing Dynasty - last imperial dynasty of China (1644-1612) ● Kangxi - Chinese Emperor during Qing Dynasty. Emperor between 1661- 1721
China Under the Powerful Ming Dynasty ➢ With the help of the Ming Dynasty (1368- 1644), China had become powerful in Asia. ➢ The Ming had also brought a peaceful and prosperous era to Asia, and did not want outsiders to end this.
The Rise of the Ming ➢ Hongwu, son of a peasant, in 1368 drove the Mongols out of China with a rebel army. ➢ Hongwu became the first Ming emperor in 1368. He ruled in Nanjing. ➢ He brought stability to China, helped reform aspects of China like land and traditions that were destroyed by the previous wars
Hongwu’s Death ➢ Hongwu died in 1398. ○ “Hongwu’s death led to a power struggle” -(people fighting about who should have power ➢ Yonglo (Hongwu’s son) eventually ended up on top and gained Hongwu’s power. ➢ held many of the same beliefs as his father ➢ was curious and wanted to explore the world
The Voyages of Zheng He ➢ Zheng He was a Chinese Muslim explorer and led all (7) Chinese explorations ➢ his voyages were large in length, ship size, and distances traveled ➢ to show Chinese superiority, wherever he went he would gift expensive items like silks ➢ the voyages ran from Southeast Asia to Africa ➢ Chinese people complained the Zheng He was wastign resources ➢ in 1433 China withdrew to isolation after the 7th voyage.
Ming Relations with Foreign Countries ➢ in the 1500s, China’s isolation showed in the ways they did trade. ➢ only the government could do trade with foreign countries and they had 3 ports in Canton, Macao, and Ningbo. ➢ around the world, there was a demand for Chinese goods.
Chinese Exports ➢ China did not become industrialized because of their Confuician beliefs. ○ it was said that merchants were making their money by “ supporting foreigners and robbery” ○ another reason was that “Chinese economic policies traditionally favored agriculture.” ■ this meant that the taxes for manufacturing were higher, and agriculture taxes were low.
Christianity to China ➢ the European traders that ventured to China brought Christian missionaries with them. ➢ the missionaries brought technology like the clock as well as Christianity ➢ one of the first missionaries was Matteo Ricci, an Italian Jesuit.
Matteo Ricci ➢ Matteo Ricci was a very smart man and was fluent in Chinese. ➢ because of this, he was favored at the Ming court. ➢ even though there was Christianity in China, many Chinese scholars were against Christians and Europeans being present in China.
Collapse of the Ming Dynasty ➢ The Ming had been ruling for 200 years and the government was weakening. ○ Ineffective rulers ○ Government out of money ○ Bad harvests ➢ The Manchus invaded China and the Ming Dynasty collapsed.
China under the Qing ➢ The Chinese traditional Confucian beliefs and social structures remained intact even though they were under a ruler.
Emperors of the Qing Dynasty ➢ Kangxi was the first emperor of the Qing Dynasty ○ He ruled for 60 years ○ He reduced government expenses ○ He lowered taxes ➢ Qian-long was the next emperor ○ He was the grandson of Kangxi ○ He helped China reach its size ○ He helped China be prosperous
Chinese Isolation ➢ If foreign states wanted to trade with China they had to follow Chinese rules ○ Trading at special ports ○ Paying tribute ○ Performing Kowtow ritual where you kneel down and place your head to the ground 9 times
Chinese Isolation Continued ➢ The Dutch followed the China’s rules and they were great trade partners ➢ Britain on the other hand asked for less rules and the Chinese refused. ➢ The Chinese were self sufficient and didn’t need Dutch and Britain trade
Korea Under Manchus ➢ Manchus conquered Korea and made it a vassal state ➢ Korea still remained independent from China
Chinese Life During the 1600s and 1700s China was in a time of general peace. Chinese farmers stuck with their ancestors ways of farming but during the Qing Dynasty irrigation and fertilizer usage increased. Farmers grew rice but new crops brought over by the Europeans from the Americas included corn and sweet potatoes
Food and Population Increased ● Since food production increased nutrition improved and the population grew tremendously ● Many new families were made but sons were favored. ● Reasons for sons being favored were because sons would hold all the responsibilities like performing vital religious rituals. Sons would also make and take care of his family when he was old enough to have one. The son would also have the responsibility of taking care of his parents as well. ● But females were not favored as much. In a matter of fact many female infants were killed. ● Women still had responsibilities but men overall ruled the house. Women would still work in the fields supervise the children's education and would manage the family finance.
Cultural Developments They based many things on traditional forms. "Dream of the Red Chamber " by Cao Zhan was a great Chinese masterpiece that examined upper class Manchu society in the 1700s
Artist ● Most artist of the time painted in traditional styles. Which meant they valued technique over creativity. ● Pottery experimentation led to the production of high quality ceramics including porcelain ● Drama/plays were popular in society especially in rural China where literacy rates were low. ● Some plays demonstrated Chinese history and cultural heroes. The dramas not only entertained but helped unify Chinese society by creating national culture.