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China – Ming Dynasty & Admiral Zheng He and the Qing Dynasty

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Presentation on theme: "China – Ming Dynasty & Admiral Zheng He and the Qing Dynasty"— Presentation transcript:

1 China – Ming Dynasty & Admiral Zheng He and the Qing Dynasty
19-2: SSWH11a & SSWH11b

2 Ming Dynasty – invaded and overthrew Mongols around 1368
Peace and prosperity 1. reformed agriculture, restored civil service, and Confucian moral standards 2. increased rice production, irrigation, introduced fish farming and commercial crops B. Government only allowed to trade with foreigners at certain ports: Canton, Macao, and Ningbo 1. led to smuggling 2. increased commerce and manufacturing 3. introduction of Christianity and European inventions

3 II. Zheng He Voyages 1405-1433 A. During Ming Dynasty
1. Chinese Muslim and Eunuch 2. 7 voyages as far as eastern Africa and possibly to America a. Large fleets (300 ships), ships as long as 400 feet (Columbus’s ships only 85’ long) b. distributed gifts (silver & silk) in return 16 countries sent tribute to China c. Voyages ended and China moved into isolation; records destroyed


5 III. Qing Dynasty (means “pure”)
A. Manchu invaded around 1644 1. Took over Ming Dynasty and expanded borders 2. Accepted over time by Chinese because they preserved Chinese traditions and Confucian beliefs 3. Restored prosperity and safety 4. Restricted trade only to special ports a. demanded tribute and “kowtow” rituals b. British demand more port cities for trading… no go c. Dutch accept Chinese trade restrictions and “kowtow”

6 IV. Emperor Kangxi – 1661; Manchu Qing Emperor
A. Ruled for 60+ years B. Defeated Mongols in 1696 with army of 80,000 C. Did not isolate himself in Forbidden City 1. Toured empire & spoke to common people D. Reduced gov. spending E. Lower taxes F. Patronized arts G. Jesuits in court shared European developments in science, medicine, math

7 “But I was careful not to refer to these Westerners as “Great Officials,” and I corrected Governor Liu Yin-shu when he referred to the Jesuits Regis and Fridelli… as if they were honored imperial commissioners. For even though some of the Western methods are different from or own, and may even be an improvement, there is little about them that is new. The principles of mathematics all derive from the Book of Changes, and the Western methods are Chinese in origin: this algebra- “A-erh-chu-pa-erh”- springs from an Eastern word. And though it was indeed the Westerners who showed us something our ancient calendar experts did not know—namely how to calculate the angles of the northern pole—this but shows the truth of what Chu Hsi arrived at through his investigation of things: the Earth is like the yolk within an egg.” Kangxi



10 V. Missionaries Largely Jesuits Shared European inventions
By 1800 tea made up 80% of shipments to Europe V. Missionaries Largely Jesuits Shared European inventions

11 VI. Population Boom A – 1900 B. Caused by peace & agricultural prosperity C. Large families to work farms

12 Side Note: Female foot binding began about 960 CE
Side Note: Female foot binding began about 960 CE. The smallest foot was most prized. The Qing Dynasty tried to do away with the practice, but was not successful. It was finally outlawed in 1912, but many mother’s still practiced foot binding on daughters in secret. The ideal foot size was three inches.

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