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China Limits European Contacts Advances under the Ming and Qing Dynasties left China self-contained & uninterested in European contact.

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Presentation on theme: "China Limits European Contacts Advances under the Ming and Qing Dynasties left China self-contained & uninterested in European contact."— Presentation transcript:

1 China Limits European Contacts Advances under the Ming and Qing Dynasties left China self-contained & uninterested in European contact.

2 Today’s goal  you will be able to… Compare and contrast the policies of China, Japan, and Europe during the Age of Exploration

3 The Rise of the Ming Since 1279, the Mongols under Kublai Khan ruled China as the Yuan Dynasty In 1368, a Chinese peasant, Hongwu, commanded a rebel army that drove the Mongols out of China Hongwu became the first emperor of the Ming Dynasty


5 The Ming Dynasty Hongwu began his rule by increasing food production, improving irrigation, and raising cotton & sugar cane He brought stability to China through respected traditions and institutions Restored the merit-based civil service examination system Hongwu became a ruthless, untrusting tyrant who put to death many people he suspected of plotting against him

6 The Ming Dynasty China was dominant power in Asia under the Ming Dynasty Vassal states paid the Ming regular tribute China expected Europeans to also pay tribute Ming rulers were not going to allow outsiders from distant lands to threaten the peace and prosperity the Ming had brought to China after ending Mongol rule

7 Yonglo’s Curiosity Hongwu’s son Yonglo continued continued his policies and moved the royal court to Beijing Yonglo was curious about the outside world and in 1405 he launched the first of seven voyages of exploration This was even before the Europeans began their expeditions Yonglo wanted to impress the world and wanted to expand China’s tribute system

8 Voyages of Zheng He Chinese Muslim admiral, Zheng He, led all of the 7 voyages Zheng He distributed gifts to show Chinese superiority More than 16 countries sent tribute to the Ming Dynasty Chinese scholar-officials thought voyages wasted valuable resources that could be used for Chinese defense against attacks After 7 th voyage, China withdrew into isolation


10 Ming’s Foreign Policies Trade policies reflected China’s isolation Kept influence of outsiders to a minimum Only gov’t able to conduct foreign trade through only three coastal ports Did not keep merchants from smuggling

11 Ming Economy Demand for Chinese goods affected economy Silk & ceramic industries grew Commerce & manufacturing increased Yet, China did not become highly industrialized 1) Idea of commerce offended Confucian beliefs 2) Chinese policies traditionally favored agriculture

12 Ming’s Foreign Policies Missionaries followed traders into China Brought Christianity and knowledge of European science & technology Most Chinese opposed the European & Christian presence

13 The Forbidden City When Yonglo moved the Chinese capital to Beijing, he ordered the building of a great palace complex to symbolize his power and might Took 14 years to build, with red walls 35 feetin height Known as the “Forbidden City” because commoners and foreigners were not allowed to enter


15 Rise of the Qing Dynasty Ming Dynasty weakening Ineffective rulers, corrupt officials, lack of $ High taxes, bad harvests, rebellion Manchus (of Manchuria to the north) invaded as the Ming collapsed Seized Beijing, and took name of Qing Dynasty

16 China Under the Qing At first, the Chinese people did not accept the new rulers, who were not Chinese However, the Qing emperors won their support Took steps to improve conditions in China Preserved Chinese traditions (such as Confucian beliefs) Kangxi & Qian-long were the two most powerful Qing rulers

17 Chinese Isolation Continues If foreign states wanted to trade with China, they would have to follow Chinese rulers Trade only at certain ports Pay tribute through the “kowtow” ritual Dutch willing to accept rules, became trading partner English did not accept, China did not back down

18 Life in Qing China The production of rice & long period of peace gave people better lives Nutrition improved, population doubled Women suffered in this period Sons valued over daughters Many infant girls killed, daughters had few rights

19 Tokugawa Japan From 1467 to 1568, Japan entered a long, dark period of civil war Daimyo took control of the land After some struggles, daimyo Tokugawa Ieyasu completed the unification of Japan Required daimyo to spend every other year in the capital of Edo (later Tokyo)

20 Tokugawa shogunate “Take care of the people. Strive to be virtuous. Never neglect to protect the country.” Very structured society Shift from rural to urban society Increased employment opportunities for women (still somewhat limited) Traditional culture thrived

21 Japan & Europeans Portuguese were first to arrive in Japan Brought clocks, eyeglasses, tobacco, firearms, etc. Daimyo were especially interested in firearms Portuguese wanted to get involved in Japan’s trade with China & Southeast Asia Japanese eager to receive newcomers & their goods

22 Christian missionaries in Japan Jesuits, Franciscans, and Dominicans came to convert the Japanese Conversions upset Tokugawa since missionaries scorned traditional Japanese beliefs, got involved in local politics By 1612, the shogun banned Christianity & focused on ridding the country of all Christians Christians were ruthlessly persecuted

23 Closed country policy Strong leaders did not like the introduction of European ways For 200 years, Japan remained basically closed to Europeans due to their “closed country policy” Japanese were forbidden to leave, so as not to bring back foreign ideas Only traded w/Dutch, only at Nagasaki port Japan became very self-sufficient

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