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By Teresa Potter, OKAGE Teacher Consultant

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1 By Teresa Potter, OKAGE Teacher Consultant
The Push-Pull Factor By Teresa Potter, OKAGE Teacher Consultant















16 What is The movement of people from one place in the world to another for the purpose of taking up permanent or semi-permanent residence, usually across a political boundary. An example of "semi-permanent residence" would be the seasonal movements of migrant farm laborers. People can either choose to move ("voluntary migration") or be forced to move ("involuntary migration"). Migrations have occurred throughout human history, beginning with the movements of the first human groups from their origins in East Africa to their current location in the world.

17 Types of Migration Internal External Emigration Immigration
Population Transfer Impelled Migration Step Migration Chain Migration Return Migration Seasonal Migration Population Transfer: When a government forces a large group of people out of a region, usually based on ethnicity or religion. This is also known as an involuntary or forced migration. Impelled Migration (also called "reluctant" or "imposed" migration): Individuals are not forced out of their country, but leave because of unfavorable situations such as warfare, political problems, or religious persecution. Step Migration: A series of shorter, less extreme migrations from a person's place of origin to final destination—such as moving from a farm, to a village, to a town, and finally to a city. Chain Migration: A series of migrations within a family or defined group of people. A chain migration often begins with one family member who sends money to bring other family members to the new location. Chain migration results in migration fields—the clustering of people from a specific region into certain neighborhoods or small towns. Return Migration: The voluntary movements of immigrants back to their place of origin. This is also known as circular migration Return Migration: The voluntary movements of immigrants back to their place of origin. This is also known as circular migration. Seasonal Migration: The process of moving for a period of time in response to labor or climate conditions.

18 People Who Migrate Emigrant Immigrant Refugee
Internally Displaced Person (IDP) Migration Stream

19 Other Words to Know Alien: A person who is not a citizen of the United States. Assimilation: The way that someone who comes from a foreign land or culture becomes absorbed into a culture and learns to blend into the ways of its predominant, or main, society. Asylum: A form of protection that allows individuals who are in the U.S. to remain here. Discrimination: Unfair treatment based on racism or other prejudices. Permanent Resident Status: Status given to those who become legally recognized in the U.S. as a permanent legal immigrant. Asylum-provided that they meet the definition of a refugee and are not barred from either applying for or being granted asylum, and eventually to adjust their status to lawful permanent resident.

20 Migration is the result of push or pull factors.
Push Factors Pull Factors Factors that drive a person/people to move away from an area. Factors that draw a person/people to move to a certain area. Push Factors-i.e. food shortage, war, flood, etc. Pull Factors-i.e. nicer climate, better food supply, freedom, etc. Several types of push pull factors may influence people in their movements sometimes at the same time. They are political, environmental, economic and cultural (religion, education). Place Utility: The desirability of a place based on its social, economic, or environmental situation, often used to compare the value of living in different locations. An individual’s idea of place utility may or may not reflect the actual conditions of that location. Intervening Opportunities: Opportunities nearby are usually considered more attractive than equal or slightly better opportunities farther away, so migrants tend to settle in a location closer to their point of origin if other factors are equal. Distance Decay: As distance from a given location increases, understanding of that location decreases. People are more likely to settle in a (closer) place about which they have more knowledge than in a (farther) place about which they know and understand little.

21 Reasons for Migration Push Factors Pull Factors Poverty Push Factors Pull Factors Poverty Lack of religious freedom Corrupt governments Lack of opportunity Poor education Civil strife Lack of medical care Natural disasters Opportunity Religious freedom or freedom in general Higher standard of living Jobs Lower cost of living Medical care / medicine Safety/protection Fair or just government

22 “Oklahoma is My Home” Joel Menchaca, an undocumented immigrant from Mexico, goes to school part time at Oklahoma State University — Oklahoma City. To pay for his tuition and other expenses, he does construction work and works a part-time job at a McDonald's.

23 “Oklahoma is My Home” Push Factors Pull Factors
Needed medical attention Father left Lack of opportunity A better life Medical care Education

24 The Push-Pull Factor Talk Show
The Push-Pull Factor Talk Show

25 http://www. themarshallbros




29 Overcrowding in the U.S. Population in many cities kept growing abruptly because of new immigrants.  In the early 1800's, New York's population went from 60,489 to 202,589.  St.Louis' population doubled every nine years and Cincinnati doubled every seven years.  Abrupt population growth brought issues for the residents.  Houses were compacted together and toilets overflowed, spreading diseases.  Crime was also a huge problem.  To help new immigrants, societies were set up to aid them and politicians set up organizations to help.

30 America-A Melting Pot Emma Lazarus Lyndon B. Johnson
“Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed, to me: I lift my lamp beside the golden door.” “The land flourished because it was fed from so many sources--because it was nourished by so many cultures and traditions and peoples.” themes/immigration/theories.htm

31 Bibliography Markel, Michelle. Brave Girl: Clara and the Shirtwaist Makers’ Strike of Harper Collins Publishers: New York, NY

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