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**Measuring with SI Units**

3.2 Measuring with SI Units Which five SI base units do chemists commonly use?

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3.2 All measurements depend on units that serve as reference standards. The standards of measurement used in science are those of the metric system. The International System of Units (abbreviated SI, after the French name, Le Système International d’Unités) is a revised version of the metric system.

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3.2 The five SI base units commonly used by chemists are the meter, the kilogram, the kelvin, the second, and the mole.

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3.2 Units and Quantities What metric units are commonly used to measure length, volume, mass, temperature and energy?

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3.2 Units of Length In SI, the basic unit of length is the meter (m). For very large or and very small lengths, it may be more convenient to use a unit of length that has a prefix.

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3.2 Common metric units of length include the centimeter, meter, and kilometer.

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3.2 Units of Volume The SI unit of volume is the amount of space occupied by a cube that is 1 m along each edge. This volume is the cubic meter (m)3. A more convenient unit of volume for everyday use is the liter, a non-SI unit. A liter (L) is the volume of a cube that is 10 centimeters (10 cm) along each edge (10 cm 10 cm 10 cm = 1000 cm3 = 1 L).

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3.2 Common metric units of volume include the liter, milliliter, cubic centimeter, and microliter.

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3.2 The volume of 20 drops of liquid from a medicine dropper is approximately 1 mL. These photographs above give you some idea of the relative sizes of some different units of volume. a) The volume of 20 drops of liquid from a medicine dropper is approximately 1 mL. b) A sugar cube is 1 cm on each edge and has a volume of 1 cm3. Note that 1 mL is the same as 1 cm3. c) A gallon of milk has about twice the volume of a 2-L bottle of soda. Calculating How many cubic centimeters are in 2 liters?

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**A sugar cube has a volume of 1 cm3. 1 mL is the same as 1 cm3.**

3.2 A sugar cube has a volume of 1 cm3. 1 mL is the same as 1 cm3. These photographs above give you some idea of the relative sizes of some different units of volume. a) The volume of 20 drops of liquid from a medicine dropper is approximately 1 mL. b) A sugar cube is 1 cm on each edge and has a volume of 1 cm3. Note that 1 mL is the same as 1 cm3. c) A gallon of milk has about twice the volume of a 2-L bottle of soda. Calculating How many cubic centimeters are in 2 liters?

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**A gallon of milk has about twice the volume of a 2-L bottle of soda.**

3.2 A gallon of milk has about twice the volume of a 2-L bottle of soda. These photographs above give you some idea of the relative sizes of some different units of volume. a) The volume of 20 drops of liquid from a medicine dropper is approximately 1 mL. b) A sugar cube is 1 cm on each edge and has a volume of 1 cm3. Note that 1 mL is the same as 1 cm3. c) A gallon of milk has about twice the volume of a 2-L bottle of soda. Calculating How many cubic centimeters are in 2 liters?

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3.2 Units of Mass The mass of an object is measured in comparison to a standard mass of 1 kilogram (kg), which is the basic SI unit of mass. A gram (g) is 1/1000 of a kilogram; the mass of 1 cm3 of water at 4°C is 1 g.

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3.2 Common metric units of mass include kilogram, gram, milligram, and microgram.

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**Weight is a force that measures the pull on a given mass by gravity.**

3.2 Weight is a force that measures the pull on a given mass by gravity. The astronaut shown on the surface of the moon weighs one sixth of what he weighs on Earth. An astronaut’s weight on the moon is one sixth as much as it is on Earth. Earth exerts six times the force of gravity as the moon. Inferring How does the astronaut’s mass on the moon compare to his mass on Earth?

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**Temperature is a measure of how hot or cold an object is.**

3.2 Units of Temperature Temperature is a measure of how hot or cold an object is. Thermometers are used to measure temperature. Thermometers are used to measure temperature. a) A liquid-in-glass thermometer contains alcohol or mineral spirits. b) A dial thermometer contains a coiled bimetallic strip. c) A Galileo thermometer contains several glass bulbs that are calibrated to sink or float depending on the temperature. The Galileo thermometer shown uses the Fahrenheit scale, which sets the freezing point of water at 32°F and the boiling point of water at 212°F.

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3.2 Scientists commonly use two equivalent units of temperature, the degree Celsius and the kelvin.

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3.2 On the Celsius scale, the freezing point of water is 0°C and the boiling point is 100°C. On the Kelvin scale, the freezing point of water is kelvins (K), and the boiling point is K. The zero point on the Kelvin scale, 0 K, or absolute zero, is equal to °C.

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3.2 Because one degree on the Celsius scale is equivalent to one kelvin on the Kelvin scale, converting from one temperature to another is easy. You simply add or subtract 273, as shown in the following equations.

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**Conversions Between the Celsius and Kelvin Scales**

3.2 Conversions Between the Celsius and Kelvin Scales These thermometers show a comparison of the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales. Note that a 1°C change on the Celsius scale is equal to a 1 K change on the Kelvin scale. Interpreting Diagrams What is a change of 10 K equivalent to on the Celsius scale?

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3.4

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3.4

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3.4

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for Sample Problem 3.4

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3.2 Units of Energy Energy is the capacity to do work or to produce heat. The joule and the calorie are common units of energy.

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3.2 The joule (J) is the SI unit of energy. One calorie (cal) is the quantity of heat that raises the temperature of 1 g of pure water by 1°C.

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**3.2 Section Quiz. 1. Which of the following is not a base SI unit?**

meter gram second mole

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3.2 Section Quiz. 2. If you measured both the mass and weight of an object on Earth and on the moon, you would find that both the mass and the weight do not change. both the mass and the weight change. the mass remains the same, but the weight changes. the mass changes, but the weight remains the same.

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3.2 Section Quiz. 3. A temperature of 30 degrees Celsius is equivalent to 303 K. 300 K. 243 K. 247 K.

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