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Show and Tell Review the sheet and example

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1 Show and Tell Review the sheet and example
Pick a sign up date (one date in April might change due to the midterm exam) Only 3 per class, at beginning or end of class Choose not to do it, choose to get a ‘zero’ Must hand in rubric attached to the hand in Better to go earlier than later Higher level if can apply to current topic being studied

2 Theoretical Perspectives

3 Theoretical Perspectives
The main theoretical perspectives that will be the focus of HHS4U are: Functionalism Systems Theory Symbolic Interactionism Exchange Theory Life-Course Approach Conflict Theory Feminist Theory Ecological Systems Theory

4 Theoretical Perspectives Sheet
Use the information to complete the notes sheet Theoretical Perspectives Handout

5 Functionalism or Structural Functionalism:(Macro)
1. What does Functionalism attempt to explain? Is the sociological theory that looks at how society is organized to perform its required functions effectively. Focuses on how the structures function within society. Is the oldest sociological theory and is also used by anthropologists

6 Functionalism or Structural Functionalism:(Macro)
2. Functionalism assumes that societies are __institutions____________ that____serve specific functions in society and family members are expected to fill prescribed roles within the institution for the good of society as a whole. 3. Social change can upset what, from a functionalist point of view? Equilibrium

7 Functionalism or Structural Functionalism:(Macro)
4. Status is a specific position within a social group 5. Role is set of behaviours that an individual is expected to demonstrate within a status 6. A common behavior is known as norm_ 7. Functionalism uses a macro_ approach.

8 Systems Theory:(MICRO)
1. What does the Systems Theory attempt to explain? Sociological theory- looks at how groups on individuals interact as a system, a set of different parts that work together and influence one another in a relatively stable way over time.

9 Systems Theory:(MICRO)
2. What is feedback? Basic concept is that the family systems have a complex organization- means that although the organization is not a simple sequential one, it is not chaotic- basic principle of system theory is feedback- a process by which members learn how to interact to maintain the stability of the system- feedback implies give and take, the individuals within the family influence each other in a reciprocal way- process by which the system informs its members how to interact and maintain the stability of the system

10 Systems Theory:(MICRO)
3. What are meaningful habits? Strategies or patters of interaction that are repeated- thus allowing family systems to develop strategies for achieving the goals and functions of individuals and of the family and for interacting with society.

11 Systems Theory:(MICRO)
4. Family systems adapt when a change in one person’s behavior causes the behavior of others to evolve, resulting in new strategies. 5. What is the difference between Functionalism and Systems Theory? Functionalism explains the actions of individuals in groups, system theories explains the behaviour of individuals as inseparable from the group.

12 Symbolic Interactionism(Micro_)
1. What does Symbolic Interactionism attempt to explain? Psychological theory- looks at how individuals behave based on their perceptions of themselves and of others. People experience their social world, and then define and interpret their experiences to give them meaning. It is the meanings that people give to their experience of the world that matters, not the social facts. Attempt to understand the point of view of the actor to explain the action

13 Symbolic Interactionism(Micro_)
2. An individual develops a self that has two parts: the me that consist of objectives and the __I that is the subjective awareness of self. (Cooley) 3. People must also take the attitude of the other to be able to anticipate what the other person will do and decide how they should respond.(George Mead)

14 Symbolic Interactionism(Micro_)
4. People are able to communicate effectively using common language, that is shared symbols. Language is the means by which individuals interpret and give meanings to their experiences of self and others in order to interact in relationships.

15 Symbolic Interactionism(Micro_)
 Symbolic Interactionism is a psychological theory because it emphasizes the mental processes of perception and interpretation in determining the behavior of individuals. It also explains how people present themselves to others using shared symbols

16 Social Exchange Theory:
1. What does the Social Exchange Theory attempt to explain? Psychological theory- looks at how individuals make choices within roles by weighing costs and benefits. 2. Although individuals are constrained by role expectations (social roles) they act within each role to maximize the benefits and to minimize the costs.

17 Social Exchange Theory:
3. When is a relationships stable according to this theory? When the benefits that each individual receives balance the costs of the relationships.

18 Social Exchange Theory:
4. According to the Social Exchange Theory individuals prefer relationships that are cost- effective, those in which benefits are greater than those of alternative relationships. -explains how individuals make choices about their interactions.

19 Developmental Theories/Life-Course Approach:
1. What do Developmental/Life-Course Theories attempt to explain? Looks at behavior demonstrated by individuals or families at various stages in their lives. -Examines biological, psychological, social, and cultural factors that influence development in an interdisciplinary approach -Describes predictable changes in the behavior of individuals or families as they progress through various stages

20 Developmental Theories/Life-Course Approach:
-Explains how a personal or family-unit system adapts in response to internal and external stimuli, the life- course approach can be combined with systems theory to analyze how the transitions take place. -We have predictable stages, marked by normative events such as marriage, birth of a child or leaving home- at each stage family faces specific developmental tasks that are prerequisites for moving to the next stage -Life-course perspective assumes that families at similar stages of their life face similar tasks.

21 Developmental Theories/Life-Course Approach:
2. What are developmental tasks? Role expectations that challenge individuals to develop. 3. Erikson explained that people develop their individual identities separate from their parents to make the transition from adolescence to adulthood.

22 Conflict Theories: Macro
1. According to this theory, what holds a society together? Interdisciplinary sociological and political theory that looks at how societies are held together by POWER, not by individuals and groups needing and depending on each other. 2. Conflict exists between groups in society because inequalities in power.

23 Conflict Theories: Macro
3. Unlike other theories, Conflict Theories do not explain society, they criticize it. 4. According to Conflict Theory society is organized into groups to divide people according to their power and to encourage competition.

24 Feminist Theories: 1. What do Feminist Theories explain? Explain the impact of sex and gender on behavior, consider issues of human behavior from specific point of view of women. 2. Feminist theories have their roots in conflict theory but were developed to separate sex and gender from class.

25 Feminist Theories: 3. What do Liberal Feminism state? Argues that discriminatory policies force women into an inferior social class that restricts their rights to participate fully in society according to their individual abilities.

26 Feminist Theories: 4. Social Feminism is based on the assumption that the status of women is a social inequality rooted in the sexual division of paid and unpaid labour. 5. Radical Feminism argues that the differences between men and female result in any male- female relationship as being exploitative. Only the development of a separate female culture can correct this.

27 The Ecological Perspective
1. What does the Ecological Perspective attempt to explain? Looks at individuals and families as members of an interlocking system within society that influence each other. Looks at behavior in terms of the impact of society, including social policy, technological change, or cultural diversity. Explains the complexity of individuals behaviours in terms of the influence of interlocking influences on several levels. Can be used to explain the diversity of developmental behavior that cannot be explained by developmental theory alone.

28 The Ecological Perspective
Recognizes the influence of others in reciprocal relationships as explained by systems theory, but extends to influences outside the family Explains how the socio-economic and socio-cultural environments influence individual and family behavior through socialization and family behavior through socialization , the availability of rescores, and the established political framework Sees families as microsystems that are modeled on the organization of the broader society Useful approach for examining the impact of social change and policies on individuals and families, but it is less useful for investigating individual situations.


30 The Ecological Perspective
2. What are the four levels that the Ecological Systems theory feels influences individuals and families? 1. Microsystem- each individual is a system that develops behavior to meet its needs 2. Mesosystem- small groups, of which the family is one and to which the individual belongs, socialize the individual in ways that are influenced by their society.

31 The Ecological Perspective
3. Exosystem- the socio-economic environment, including the extended family, the school, and employment, sets expectations and influences the resources available to families and individuals. 4. Macrosystem- the socio-cultural environment, the society in which the person lives, includes the ideology and policies that limit behavior

32 Using Theoretical Perspectives
Research Skills Using Theoretical Perspectives

33 General Terms to Know Sample Group: The participants in the study
Population: The group that the participants are chosen from; generalization Objective: Not based on opinion or bias “The legal definition of corporal punishment states..” Subjective: Based on opinion and perceptions “Corporal punishment is clearly the same as abuse….”

34 Chart Headings Theoretical Perspective 1. Model Research Questions
2.Model Hypothesis 3.Model Research Methods Functionalism Systems Theory Symbolic Interactionism Exchange Theory Life-Course Approach Conflict Theory and Feminist Theories Ecological Systems Theory

35 Functionalism How is the family organized to fulfill a function? e.g. What is the division of childcare tasks in dual-working families with preschool children e.g. In dual-working families with preschool children, childcare will be divided according to hours of work for husband and wife, with the mother doing more than the father when both are available Quantitative methods and statistical analysis to determine norms or trends. Surveys, secondary analysis

36 Systems Theory How do family members interact to fulfill functions? e.g. How does couple interaction change when a second child is born? e.g. When a second child is born, couples spend less time in one-on-one interaction with each other. Both quantitative and qualitative methods to describe interactions. Interviews, observations

37 Symbolic Interactionism
What meaning do individuals place on behaviours and how to the respond? e.g How do teenagers perceive text messages from parents and how do these messages influence the behaviour of teenagers. e.g. Teenagers perceive text messages from parents as affection and are more likely to obey the requests of their parents than teenagers who not receive text messages. Qualitative methods to understand perception and interpretation. Participant observation, interviews

38 Exchange Theory How do the perceived costs and benefits influence a course of action? e.g. What are the costs and benefits for a divorced woman returning to live with her parents? e.g. For divorced women who decide to return to their parents’ home, the economic and emotional support outweighs the loss of independence. Qualitative methods to determine priorities. Interviews, experiments

39 Life-Course Approach How are developmental tasks at this stage influencing the behaviour of individuals and families? e.g How do parents influence the timing of leaving home for emerging adults? e.g: Emerging adults who have a conflicted relationship with their parents leave home earlier than those wit ha close relationship. Both quantitative and qualitative methods to observe patterns over time using a large sample group. Surveys, interviews

40 Conflict Theory and Feminist Theories
How do power and authority affect behaviour in the family? e.g. How do power and authority influence a couple’s decision- making about childcare? e.g. The higher a woman’s income, the greater will be her share in the decision regarding childcare. Generally avoid objective methods and rely on observations and interviews to raise challenging questions

41 Ecological Systems Theory
How do the socio-cultural, socio economic and interpersonal environments affect behaviour? e.g. How do educational funding, location of college programs, and family employment history influence the post-secondary choices of high-school graduates? e.g. Increased student grants, the availability of a college within commuting distance, and parental employment related to their own education increase the possibility of a high-school graduate attending college. Both quantitative and qualitative methods to consider variables and determine patterns of influence. Surveys, secondary analysis, interviews

42 Application Choose and review a research study and: Identify the:
Research Question Hypothesis Research Method (qual vs quant; sec vs prim—e.g.) Sample Group Results Conclusion and Recommendations Pick two of the social institutions and explain how they might use the information. Connect to one theoretical perspective /8 / /15A /3

43 About a Boy “About A Cat Party”
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