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THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES Unit 1 – Chapter 2 (Continued)

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Presentation on theme: "THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES Unit 1 – Chapter 2 (Continued)"— Presentation transcript:

1 THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES Unit 1 – Chapter 2 (Continued)

2 Symbolic Interactionism A Developed by Explains how individuals behave based on their perceptions of themselves and of others

3 Symbolic Interactionism People experience their social world, and define and interpret their experiences to give them meaning

4 Symbolic Interactionism Only after the mental process of “giving meaning” do people act Symbolic interactionists attempt to understand the point of view of the actor to explain the action

5 3 Basic Concepts 1)An individual develops a self that has 2 parts The “I” is based on how the individual interprets feedback from other people Looking Glass Theory:

6 3 Basic Concepts 2)People must also to be able to anticipate what the other person will do and decide how they should respond. This role taking is the basis for human interaction. (George Mead)

7 3 Basic Concepts 3)People are able to interact effectively only if Language is the means by which individuals interpret and give meaning to their experiences of self and others in order to interact in relationships. (George Mead)

8 Symbolic Interactionism Example:

9 Symbolic Interactionism Limitation Since the researcher perceives and interprets the actions of the individuals during the observation,

10 Social Exchange Theory A Explains the social factors that influence how individuals interact within

11 Social Exchange Theory Individuals are constrained by role expectations They act within each role to

12 Social Exchange Theory Like Symbolic Interactionism, individuals interpret their experiences of self and others to determine the benefits and costs The benefits and costs of a relationship are not facts,

13 Social Exchange Theory Use Social Exchange Theory to explain the relationship between Hugh Hefner and his previous girlfriends.

14 Social Exchange Theory Relationships are stable when Benefits are rewarding because they meet a perceived need Costs of a relationship are those actions that meet the needs of another

15 Social Exchange Theory Individuals prefer relationships that are Social Exchange Theory is used to explain how individuals make decisions to form and maintain relationships that might appear unacceptable to others Some people are offended by the cost/benefit analysis

16 Developmental Theories Describe patterns of growth and change throughout the human life span As individuals progress through life, they face role expectations that challenge them to develop Describe predictable changes in the behaviour of individuals or families in different stages and how they adapt to changes

17 Developmental Theories Examine biological, psychological, social and cultural factors that influence development Explain factors that influence differences in behaviour demonstrated by individuals or families at different age-stages Differences could also reflect social change rather than development

18 Developmental Theories Family Life-Cycle Framework Applies the developmental perspective to the life-spans of families Families, like individuals, have life spans with predictable stages = At each stage, the family faces specific developmental tasks

19 Developmental Theories Family Life-Cycle Framework Some families will experience Assumes families at a similar stage of their life cycles face similar tasks

20 Conflict Theory A Explains how power holds a society together ability to control the behaviour of another Conflict exists between groups in society Groups compete with one another to meet their needs

21 Conflict Theory If groups are in competition, then the needs of all will not be met equally Competition can result in exploitation by Society is organized into groups to divide people according to their power and to encourage competition

22 Conflict Theory Unlike Functionalists, “Functional for whom?”

23 Conflict Theory Karl Marx Explained class divisions in Capitalist Societies in the 19 th Century those who controlled the means of production, the wealthy owners of businesses and factories the working people

24 Conflict Theory Karl Marx The bourgeoisie were a small group in society with tremendous power because they controlled the livelihood of the proletariat/the masses Eventually Gap between the 2 groups will grow

25 Conflict Theory Karl Marx A society would be stable if people perceived the dominant group as being more entitled to the benefits of society

26 Conflict Theory Friedrich Engels Divisions between the sexes in marriage Maintains the class distinction of Capitalism Men’s labour Women’s labour

27 Conflict Theory Friedrich Engels From all classes, Women had to marry, Men could maintain their power by continuing to sell their labour for wages Women could not have economic support without maintaining a marriage

28 Conflict Theory Friedrich Engels Oppression of women Conflict Theory Explains the relationship of men and women Used for analyzing power and authority within the family

29 Feminist Theories Developed in the 2 nd half of the 20 th century Explains the impact of sex and gender on behaviour Considers issues of human behaviour from developed to separate sex and gender from class

30 Feminist Theories Developed as a reaction to gender biases in sociology Androcentricity: Double Standards: Like Conflict Theory, change is required so the needs of all people are met

31 Feminist Theories Explains social inequalities between men and women from a female perspective Liberal Feminism: discriminatory policies force women into an inferior social class that restricts their rights to participate fully in society

32 Feminist Theories Radical Feminism: Argues that the differences in power between men and women result in any male-female relationship as being exploitative

33 Feminist Theories Socialist Feminism Based on the assumption that the status of women is a social inequality rooted in the sexual division of paid and unpaid labour

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