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Research Problem.

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Presentation on theme: "Research Problem."— Presentation transcript:

1 Research Problem

2 What is Research Problem
A research problem refers to some difficulty which a researcher experiences in the context of either a theoretical or practical situation and wants to obtain a solution for the same. In research process, research problem is the first and foremost step. It can either be a real life situation or it may also refers to a set of opportunities.

3 Types of Research Problem
There are two types of Research Problem: Problems which relates to states of nature Eg – Status of working children in any Metropolitan city in 2012. Problems which relates to relationship between variables Eg – Lack of chemical fertilizer in the main cause of low production of grain food.

4 Components of Research Problem
An individual or a group or an organisation that has some difficulty or problem Some objective to be attained Alternative means for attaining the objectives Some doubt in the mind of a researcher with regard to the selection of alternatives Some environment(s) to which the difficulty pertains

5 Selecting Research Problem
Subject which is overdone shall not be chosen. Controversial subject should not become the choice of an average researcher. Too narrow or too vague problems should be avoided. Subject selected for research should be familiar and feasible. Few factors to be considered are importance of the subject, the costs involved, the time factor, the qualifications and the training of a researcher Selection of a problem must be preceded by a preliminary study in case of new problems.

6 Technique Involved In Defining A Problem
Techniques involved are: Statement of the problem in a general way Understanding the nature of the problem Surveying the available literature Developing the ideas through discussions Rephrasing the research problem into a working proposition.

7 Research Design

8 What is Research Design
It is an important step after defining the research problem. Research design helps in deciding upon the issues regarding what, where, when, how much and by what means, an inquiry or a research study constitute. Research design refers to the plan, structure, and strategy of research--the blueprint that will guide the research process.

9 Parts of Research Design
The sampling design methods of selecting items to be observed The observational design conditions under which the observations are to be made The statistical design how many items are to be observed how the information and data gathered to be analysed The operational design Deals with the procedures specified

10 Need for Research Design
It makes research as efficient as possible by yielding maximal information with minimal expenditure of efforts, time and money. Research design stands for advance planning of methods to be adopted for collecting the relevant data and the techniques to be used in their analysis.

11 Highlights of Research Design
Nature of the study Purpose of the study Location where the study be conducted Nature of data required Where the required data be available What time period the study would cover Type of sample design to be chosen Techniques of data collection would be used Methods of data analysis to be adopted Style in which the report would be prepared

12 Features of Good Research Design
Flexible Appropriate Efficient Economical Minimises biasness Maximises the reliability of the data Smallest experimental error Yield maximal information

13 Effective Research Design
Guiding principle for effective control in a research design is: The MAXMINCON Principle MAXimize Systematic Variance MINimize Error Variance CONtrol Variance

14 Types of Research Design
Exploratory Research Design Conclusive Research Design Descriptive Research design Experimental Research Design Hypothesis-testing research Design Causal Research Design

15 Exploratory Research Also termed as formulative research studies
This research studies the subject about which either their is no information or very little information is available. The major emphasis in such studies is on the discovery of ideas and insights.

16 Purpose of Exploratory Research
Formulate a problem for more precise investigation Establishing priorities for further research Gathering information about the practical problems Increasing analyst’s familiarity with the problem Clarifying the concepts

17 Exploratory Research Methods
Experience Survey Technique in which individuals who are knowledgeable about a particular research problem are surveyed. Secondary Data Analysis Case Studies Pilot Studies Focus Group Interviews Unstructured free flowing interview with a small group of people.

18 Types of Research Design
Conclusive Research This research provides the information that is useful in reaching conclusions or decision making. Two Types Descriptive Research It is concerned with determining frequency with which something occurs or how two variable vary together. Experimental Research It is a process in which one or more variables are manipulated under conditions which allow the collection of data which show the effects.

19 Types of Research Design
Causal Research This types of research is concerned with finding cause and effect relationship.

20 Concepts related to Research Design
Dependent and Independent Variables Extraneous variable Control Confounded Relationship

21 Thank You

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