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Ethical Considerations in Research

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Presentation on theme: "Ethical Considerations in Research"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ethical Considerations in Research
PED 451 – Research in Health and Exercise Science

2 Ethical Question: Why Did the Chicken Cross the Road?
• Plato: For the greater good. • Shakespeare: To cross or not to cross, that is the question. • Einstein: Whether the chicken crossed the road or the road crossed the chicken depends on your frame of reference. • Darwin: It was the logical next step after coming down from the trees. • Graduate student: Was that regular or extra-crispy?

3 Federal Resistor October 14, 1999
Definition of Scientific Misconduct Scientific misconduct is fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results. Federal Resistor October 14, 1999

4 The Basics of Ethics in Research
Dishonest, fraudulent, or unethical researchers can circumvent the scientific method Notable examples: Nazi Germany Experimentation Charges brought against 23 German physicians in the Nuremberg War Crime Trials for their medical experiments – included: Freezing Experiments Malaria Experiments High-Altitude Experiments Led to the development of Nuremberg Code

5 The Basics of Ethics in Research
The Tuskegee Syphilis Study Was investigation of long-term effects of untreated syphilis on AA males in Macon County,AL Decision was made to do long-term prospective study and follow long-term effects until death Participants were never told real nature of study – were not afforded informed consent Treatment for syphilis was withheld (even after discovery of penicillin to treat syphilis) – study continued for 40 yrs.

6 Regulation of Research and Protection of Research Participants:
Proponents of situational ethics argue that no general rules can be applied to all situations – each action is unique Belmont report – serves as a fundamental document for current federal regulations for protection of human subjects – 3 principle: Respect for Persons Beneficence Justice Code requires that protocols involving human subjects be reviewed by an IRB. Complete Belmont report:

7 Informed Consent Inherent to this principle are 4 elements:
1. Subjects are made fully aware of the nature and purpose of the research project 2. Consent is voluntarily given 3. The person involved has the legal capacity to give consent 4. The responsibility for obtaining consent rests with the researcher * Sometimes, because of the Hawthorne Effect, it may be necessary to use some deception in telling subjects about the study.

8 Privacy and Confidentiality
Privacy refers to capacity of individuals to control when and what conditions others have access to their behaviors, beliefs, and values. Confidentiality refers to linking information to a person’s identity CAN YOU THINK OF EXAMPLES WHERE CONFIDENTIALITY WOULD BE IMPOTANT? Informed consent should indicate how researcher will protect confidentiality of participants Some procedures that can ensure confidentiality: Obtaining anonymous information Code data so that identifying info is eliminated Substitute other names Do not release or report individual data Limit access that could reveal individual identity Report data only in group form Used computerized methods for encrypting data

9 Seven Areas of Scientific Dishonesty
1. Plagiarism—using the ideas, writings, and drawings of others as your own 2. Fabrication and falsification—making up or altering data 3. Nonpublication of data , also called “cooking data” 4. Faulty data-gathering procedures 5. Poor data storage and retention (continued)

10 Seven Areas of Scientific Dishonesty
6. Misleading authorship—who should be an author? - Technicians do not necessarily become joint authors. - Authorship should involve only those who contribute directly. - Discuss authorship before the project! (continued)

11 1. Plagiarism Means using ideas, writings, or drawings of others as your own. Happens with student work as well – with advent of Internet, the availability of research is greater – is often more tempting Can occur unintentionally with students and researchers if they are careless or nonsystematic about their “pre-writing” and revision to a paper/manuscript Many schools are accessing plagiarism software – Anti-Plagiarism V.1.2 Common practice is to circulate drafts of papers among scholars who are know to be working in a specific area – give credit where credit is due.

12 2. Fabrication and Falsification
Occasionally, scientists will be caught “making up” research – Technical term is called “Cooking the data” “I only need a few more subjects, but I am running out of time.” Falsification can also occur with cited literature – Be careful how you are interpreting what an author says – “If it ain’t there, don’t make it up out of thin air”. Is another reason you should rely primarily on primary, original sources.

13 3. Nonpublication of Data
This refers to “not including” data because they don’t support the hypothesis Sometimes in the data, there are extreme scores or “outliers” - and these outliers are “trimmed” from the data set They can result in nonsiginificant findings but should “automatically” be cut. Nonsiginificant results often give just as much important information as do significant results.

14 4. Faulty Data Gathering Aspects that students should be aware of:
Continuing with data collection from participants who are not meeting the requirement of the research EXAMPLES? Subject comes in with a hangover and you use that data anyway Malfunctioning equipment Inappropriate treatment of subjects Recording data incorrectly

15 Poor data storage Misleading authorship
Rule of thumb is to keep data for 3 years All original data should be kept if there is a question Misleading Authorship – Order of authorship is based on author’s contributions 1st author usually developed the idea for the research This needs to be decided BEFORE the research is started. Two rules help to define authorship: Technicians are not necessarily authors Data collectors are not necessarily included in the authorship Authorship SHOULD include only those who directly contribute

16 Ethical Issues Regarding Copyright
• What is “fair use” of materials? - Purpose: Commercial or educational? - Nature: Is copying expected? - Amount: How much is copied? - Effect: What is the influence on the market? • For teaching: Articles, chapters, overheads, slides, PowerPoint presentations • For research: Figures and tables, standardized tests, questionnaires, previously published scholarly work • If you are unsure, ask permission!

17 Model for Considering Scientific Misconduct
• Scientific misconduct  Sanctions • Scientific mistakes  Remedial activities • Causes of scientific misconduct - Pressure to publish - Need to complete graduate work - Desire to continue funding - Desire for academic rewards

18 Working With Faculty • Faculty advisors or mentors should treat graduate students as colleagues. • Selecting an advisor or mentor: - Read what she or he has written. - Talk to other students. • Changing your advisor or mentor

19 Elements of Informed Consent:
In considering these elements, reflect back to: Nazi Experiments Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment A fair explanation of the procedures to be followed, including identification of those that are experimental A description of discomforts and risks A description of possible benefits A disclosure of appropriate alternative procedures that would be advantageous to the subject An instruction that the subject is free to withdraw or leave at any time

20 Example: Plagiarism In preparing her thesis introduction, Graduate
Assistant Christina periodically takes multiple sentences verbatim from some of her sources (her attitude is, “I couldn’t have written it better myself”). • Is she wrong to do this? • If she provides a reference to her sources at the end of the paragraph, is she still wrong?

21 Fabrication or Falsification of Data
Professor Wade has strength-training data on 20 elderly participants. As he was madly processing his data to meet the ACSM abstract deadline, he realized that the sample did not show a significant increase in strength. Examining his data more closely revealed that 15 participants did improve, but 5 did not. He decided that they must not have adhered to the training, so he dropped them and now has a significant increase in strength. (continued)

22 Fabrication or Falsification of Data
• Has Professor Wade acted ethically? • How long should you keep your data for others to see? • Are you obligated to provide your data on request?

23 Authorship Professor Conan Barbarian is an icon in the field of gerontology. He is the director of the Institute of Gerontological Research at Jellystone University, a highly funded research lab with lots of graduate students. Professor Barbarian requires that he be listed as an author on all manuscripts based on research completed in his lab. • Is Professor Barbarian justified in his demand, or is this an example of “ego gone wild?”

24 Changing Your Major Professor
Graduate Assistant (GA) Lee is interested in the mechanical behavior of muscle and was accepted at CU to study with Professor Silverman, an expert in this area. After a year in the program, the chemistry between GA Lee and Professor Silverman is not so great. Lee also notes that a GA friend is working with Professor Moran, an expert on muscle energetics, and getting some travel money. Lee wants to switch to Professor Moran but keep working on muscle mechanics. (continued)

25 Changing Your Major Professor
• Should GA Lee propose a mentor change? • If so, how should he go about this? • What are GA Lee’s obligations to Professor Silverman?

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