Presentation on theme: "Ethical Considerations in Research"— Presentation transcript:
1 Ethical Considerations in Research PED 451 – Research in Health and Exercise Science
2 Ethical Question: Why Did the Chicken Cross the Road? • Plato: For the greater good.• Shakespeare: To cross or not to cross, that is the question.• Einstein: Whether the chicken crossed the road or the road crossed the chicken depends on your frame of reference.• Darwin: It was the logical next step after coming down from the trees.• Graduate student: Was that regular or extra-crispy?
3 Federal Resistor October 14, 1999 Definition of Scientific MisconductScientific misconduct is fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results.Federal Resistor October 14, 1999
4 The Basics of Ethics in Research Dishonest, fraudulent, or unethical researchers can circumvent the scientific methodNotable examples:Nazi Germany ExperimentationCharges brought against 23 German physicians in the Nuremberg War Crime Trials for their medical experiments – included:Freezing ExperimentsMalaria ExperimentsHigh-Altitude ExperimentsLed to the development ofNuremberg Code
5 The Basics of Ethics in Research The Tuskegee Syphilis StudyWas investigation of long-term effects of untreated syphilis on AA males in Macon County,ALDecision was made to do long-term prospective study and follow long-term effects until deathParticipants were never told real nature of study – were not afforded informed consentTreatment for syphilis was withheld (even after discovery of penicillin to treat syphilis) – study continued for 40 yrs.
6 Regulation of Research and Protection of Research Participants: Proponents of situational ethics argue that no general rules can be applied to all situations – each action is uniqueBelmont report – serves as a fundamental document for current federal regulations for protection of human subjects – 3 principle:Respect for PersonsBeneficenceJusticeCode requires that protocols involving human subjects be reviewed by an IRB.Complete Belmont report:
7 Informed Consent Inherent to this principle are 4 elements: 1. Subjects are made fully aware of the nature and purpose of the research project2. Consent is voluntarily given3. The person involved has the legal capacity to give consent4. The responsibility for obtaining consent rests with the researcher* Sometimes, because of the Hawthorne Effect, it may be necessary to use some deception in telling subjects about the study.
8 Privacy and Confidentiality Privacy refers to capacity of individuals to control when and what conditions others have access to their behaviors, beliefs, and values.Confidentiality refers to linking information to a person’s identityCAN YOU THINK OF EXAMPLES WHERE CONFIDENTIALITY WOULD BE IMPOTANT?Informed consent should indicate how researcher will protect confidentiality of participantsSome procedures that can ensure confidentiality:Obtaining anonymous informationCode data so that identifying info is eliminatedSubstitute other namesDo not release or report individual dataLimit access that could reveal individual identityReport data only in group formUsed computerized methods for encrypting data
9 Seven Areas of Scientific Dishonesty 1. Plagiarism—using the ideas, writings, and drawings of others as your own2. Fabrication and falsification—making up or altering data3. Nonpublication of data , also called “cooking data”4. Faulty data-gathering procedures5. Poor data storage and retention(continued)
10 Seven Areas of Scientific Dishonesty 6. Misleading authorship—who should be an author?- Technicians do not necessarily become joint authors.- Authorship should involve only those who contribute directly.- Discuss authorship before the project!(continued)
11 1. PlagiarismMeans using ideas, writings, or drawings of others as your own.Happens with student work as well – with advent of Internet, the availability of research is greater – is often more temptingCan occur unintentionally with students and researchers if they are careless or nonsystematic about their “pre-writing” and revision to a paper/manuscriptMany schools are accessing plagiarism software –Anti-Plagiarism V.1.2Common practice is to circulate drafts of papers among scholars who are know to be working in a specific area – give credit where credit is due.
12 2. Fabrication and Falsification Occasionally, scientists will be caught “making up” research –Technical term is called “Cooking the data”“I only need a few more subjects, but I am running out of time.”Falsification can also occur with cited literature –Be careful how you are interpreting what an author says – “If it ain’t there, don’t make it up out of thin air”.Is another reason you should rely primarily on primary, original sources.
13 3. Nonpublication of Data This refers to “not including” data because they don’t support the hypothesisSometimes in the data, there are extreme scores or “outliers” - and these outliers are “trimmed” from the data setThey can result in nonsiginificant findings but should “automatically” be cut.Nonsiginificant results often give just as much important information as do significant results.
14 4. Faulty Data Gathering Aspects that students should be aware of: Continuing with data collection from participants who are not meeting the requirement of the researchEXAMPLES?Subject comes in with a hangover and you use that data anywayMalfunctioning equipmentInappropriate treatment of subjectsRecording data incorrectly
15 Poor data storage Misleading authorship Rule of thumb is to keep data for 3 yearsAll original data should be kept if there is a questionMisleading Authorship –Order of authorship is based on author’s contributions1st author usually developed the idea for the researchThis needs to be decided BEFORE the research is started.Two rules help to define authorship:Technicians are not necessarily authorsData collectors are not necessarily included in the authorshipAuthorship SHOULD include only those who directly contribute
16 Ethical Issues Regarding Copyright • What is “fair use” of materials?- Purpose: Commercial or educational?- Nature: Is copying expected?- Amount: How much is copied?- Effect: What is the influence on the market?• For teaching: Articles, chapters, overheads, slides, PowerPoint presentations• For research: Figures and tables, standardized tests, questionnaires, previously published scholarly work• If you are unsure, ask permission!
17 Model for Considering Scientific Misconduct • Scientific misconduct Sanctions• Scientific mistakes Remedial activities• Causes of scientific misconduct- Pressure to publish- Need to complete graduate work- Desire to continue funding- Desire for academic rewards
18 Working With Faculty• Faculty advisors or mentors should treat graduate students as colleagues.• Selecting an advisor or mentor:- Read what she or he has written.- Talk to other students.• Changing your advisor or mentor
19 Elements of Informed Consent: In considering these elements, reflect back to:Nazi ExperimentsTuskegee Syphilis ExperimentA fair explanation of the procedures to be followed, including identification of those that are experimentalA description of discomforts and risksA description of possible benefitsA disclosure of appropriate alternative procedures that would be advantageous to the subjectAn instruction that the subject is free to withdraw or leave at any time
20 Example: Plagiarism In preparing her thesis introduction, Graduate Assistant Christina periodically takes multiplesentences verbatim from some of her sources (herattitude is, “I couldn’t have written it better myself”).• Is she wrong to do this?• If she provides a reference to her sources at the end of the paragraph, is she still wrong?
21 Fabrication or Falsification of Data Professor Wade has strength-training data on 20 elderly participants. As he was madly processing his data to meet the ACSM abstract deadline, he realized that the sample did not show a significant increase in strength. Examining his data more closely revealed that 15 participants did improve, but 5 did not. He decided that they must not have adhered to the training, so he dropped them and now has a significant increase in strength.(continued)
22 Fabrication or Falsification of Data • Has Professor Wade acted ethically?• How long should you keep your data for others to see?• Are you obligated to provide your data on request?
23 AuthorshipProfessor Conan Barbarian is an icon in the field of gerontology. He is the director of the Institute of Gerontological Research at Jellystone University, a highly funded research lab with lots of graduate students. Professor Barbarian requires that he be listed as an author on all manuscripts based on research completed in his lab.• Is Professor Barbarian justified in his demand, or is this an example of “ego gone wild?”
24 Changing Your Major Professor Graduate Assistant (GA) Lee is interested in the mechanical behavior of muscle and was accepted at CU to study with Professor Silverman, an expert in this area. After a year in the program, the chemistrybetween GA Lee and Professor Silverman is not so great. Lee also notes that a GA friend is working withProfessor Moran, an expert on muscle energetics, and getting some travel money. Lee wants to switch to Professor Moran but keep working on muscle mechanics.(continued)
25 Changing Your Major Professor • Should GA Lee propose a mentor change?• If so, how should he go about this?• What are GA Lee’s obligations to Professor Silverman?