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Assalamualaikum wr. wb GROUP 1 (Class A) The Six Senses

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1 Assalamualaikum wr. wb GROUP 1 (Class A) The Six Senses
The members : Adi Khoerul Anwar Denny Irdantie Tikasari Whildanah Sekar Sarasati Reny Setiyo Anggraeni Angga Alfian Saputra PBI Irfan Dwi Yulianto

2 Lecturer : Jati Suryanto, S.pd., Dipl. TESOL
MORPHOLOGY On Selecta on Grammar 2 Lecturer : Jati Suryanto, S.pd., Dipl. TESOL

3 Morphology Morphology is the branch of linguistics that studies the structure of words.

4 Morphology In English and many other languages, many words can be broken down into parts. For example: unhappiness un-happi-ness horses horse-s walking walk-ing

5 Morphology The Details : un - carries a negative meaning
ness - expresses a state or quality s - expresses plurality ing - conveys a sense of duration

6 Morphology A word like “yes”, however, has no internal grammatical structure. We can analyze the sounds, but none of them has any meaning in isolation.

7 Morphology The smallest unit which has a meaning or grammatical function that words can be broken down into are known as morphemes. So to be clear: “un” is a morpheme. “yes” is also a morpheme, but also happens to be a word.

8 Morphology There are several important distinctions that must be made in morpheme : (1) – Free vs. Bound morphemes Free morphemes are morphemes which can stand alone. We have already seen the example of “yes”.

9 Morphology Bound morphemes: never exist as words themselves, but are always attached to some other morpheme. We have already seen the example of “un”.

10 Morphology When we identify the number and types of morphemes that a given word consists of, we are looking at what is referred to as the structure of a word. Every word has at least one free morpheme, which is referred to as the root, stem, or base.

11 Morphology We can further divide bound morphemes into three categories: prefix un-happy suffix happi-ness infix abso-blooming-lutely The general term for all three is affix.

12 Morphology (2) – Derivational vs. Inflectional morphemes
Derivational morphemes create or derive new words by changing the meaning or by changing the word class of the word.  For example: happy → unhappy Both words are adjectives, but the meaning changes.

13 Morphology quick → quickness
The affix changes both meaning and word class - adjective to a noun. In English: Derivational morphemes can be either prefixes or suffixes.

14 Morphology Inflectional morphemes don’t alter words the meaning or word class of a word; instead they only refine and give extra grammatical information about the word’s already existing meaning. For example: Cat → cats walk → walking

15 Morphology In English: Inflectional morphemes are all suffixes (by chance, since in other languages this is not true). There are only 8 inflectional morphemes in English:

16 Morphology -s 3rd person sg. present “He waits” -ed past tense
“He waited” -ing progressive “He is waiting”

17 Morphology -en past participle “I had eaten” -s plural
“Both chairs are broken” -’s possessive “The chair’s leg is broken”

18 Morphology -er comparative “He was faster” -est superlative “He was the fastest”

19 Morphology Inflectional morphemes are required by syntax. (that is, they indicate syntactic or semantic relations between different words in a sentence). For example: Nim loves bananas. but  They love bananas.

20 Morphology Derivational morphemes are different with inflectional morphemes. In the syntax does not require the presence of derivational morphemes; however, it indicates semantic relations within a word (that is, they change the meaning of the word). For example: kind → unkind He is unkind They are unkind

21 Morphology A morpheme is not equal to a syllable:
"coats"  has 1 syllable, but 2 morphemes. "syllable" has 2 syllables, but only 1 morpheme

22 Types of Word-Formation Processes
Morphology Types of Word-Formation Processes A first word-formation process is known as affixation, which is forming new words by the combination of bound affixes and free morphemes.

23 There are three types of affixation:
Morphology There are three types of affixation: Prefixation: where an affix is placed before the base of the word suffixation: where an affix is placed after the base of the word infixation: where an affix is placed within a stem (word + inflection) (abso-blooming-lutely)

24 Morphology While English uses primarily prefixation and suffixation, many other languages use infixes. These are Infixes in English : Hallelujah >> Hallebloodylujah Fantastic >> Fan-flaming-tastic ( Engagement) Absolutely >> Absobloominlutely (of course )

25 Morphology In Tagolog, a language of the Philippines, for example, the infix ‘um’ is used for infinitive forms of verbs (to _______) EXAMPLE : sulat ‘write’ sumulat ‘to write’ bili ‘buy’ bumili ‘to buy’ kuha ‘take’ kumuha ‘to take’

26 Morphology A second word-formation process is known as Compounding, which is forming new words not from bound affixes but from two or more independent words: the words can be free morphemes, words derived by affixation, or even words formed by compounds themselves. e.g. girlfriend air-conditioner blackbird looking-glass textbook watchmaker

27 Morphology Compound words have different stress, as in the following examples: The wool sweater gave the man a red neck. The redneck in the bar got drunk and started yelling

28 Morphology In compounds, the primary stress is on the first word only, while individual words in phrases have independent primary stress. blackbird black bird makeup make up  

29 Morphology A third word-formation process is known as Reduplication, which is forming new words either by doubling an entire free morpheme (total reduplication) or part of a morpheme (partial reduplication). >> English doesn’t use this, but other languages make much more extensive use of reduplication.

30 Morphology In Indonesian, for example, total reduplication is used to form plurals: rumah ‘house’ Rumah-rumah ‘houses’ ibu ‘mother’ Ibu-ibu ‘mothers’ lalat ‘fly’ Lalat-lalat ‘flies’

31 Morphology A fourth type of word-formation process is known as Blending, where two words merge into each other, such as: brunch from breakfast and lunch smog from smoke and fog 

32 Thanks for your attention
Assalamualaikum wr. Wb Hope this material is useful for us

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