Introduction to research Analyzing and interpreting research data
Published byModified over 6 years ago
Presentation on theme: "Introduction to research Analyzing and interpreting research data"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to research 1703423-2 Analyzing and interpreting research data Dr Naiema Gaber
2 Analyzing and interpreting research data The learning objectives After this lecture the student will be able to:Define data analysis proceduresDescribe how to prepare and organize the data for analysisExplain the coding process of the dataDifferentiate the types of StatisticsDetermine ways of representing and reporting the findingsDiscuss how to interpret the findingsIdentify methods of validating the accuracy and credibility of the findingsDescribe how to draw conclusions
3 DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURES Data analysis is an eclectic process. Occurs simultaneously with data collection, data interpretation and report writing.Is based on the on data reduction and interpretationIt can be manual or computerized
4 Preparing data for analysis scoring: assigning a total to each participant’s instrument tabulating: organizing the data in a systematic manner coding: assigning numerals (e.g., ID) to data
5 How do You Prepare and Organize the Data? Develop a matrix to organize the materialOrganize material by typeKeep duplicate copies of materialsTranscribe (copy out) dataPrepare data for hand or computer analysis (and select computer program)Educational Research 2e: Creswell
6 How do you Explore and Code the Data? Obtain a general sense of the data by performing a preliminary exploratory analysisMemo ideasConsider whether more data are neededCoding the dataEducational Research 2e: Creswell
7 Steps in Coding Read through all transcripts Start with one transcript Identify text segments – ask “what is this person saying?”Bracket text segmentAssign code wordReduce redundancy (unemployment data)Collapse codes into themesEducational Research 2e: Creswell
8 A Visual Model of the Coding Process in Qualitative Research Reduce Codes to5-7 ThemesInitially readthrough dataDivide textinto segmentsof informationLabelsegments ofinformationwith codesReduceOverlap andredundancyof codesCollapsecodes intothemesManyPagesof TextSegments30-40codesCodesreducedto 20Educational Research 2e: Creswell
9 How do You Use Codes to Build Description? DescribePeopleEventsActivitiesProcessesEducational Research 2e: Creswell
10 Managing Data Regardless of data type, managing data involves familiarizing yourself with appropriate softwaredeveloping a data management systemsystematically organizing and screening dataentering the data into a program‘cleaning’ your datado right statistics (descriptive or Inferential)O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 11.
11 StatisticsIt’s important for researchers to be familiar with the language and logic of statistics, and be competent in the use of statistical software.O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 11.
12 Descriptive Statistics Descriptive statistics are used to summarize the basic feature of a data set throughmeasures of central tendency (mean, mode, and median)dispersion (range, quartiles, variance, andstandard deviation)distribution (skewness and kurtosis)O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 11.
13 Inferential Statistics Inferential statistics allow researchers to assess their ability to draw conclusions that extent beyond the immediate data, e.g.if a sample represents the populationif there are differences between two or more groupsif there are changes over timeif there is a relationship between two or more variablesO'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 11.
14 Selecting Statistical Tests Selecting the right statistical test relies onknowing the nature of your variablestheir scale of measurementtheir distribution shapetypes of question you want to askO'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 11.
15 How to present dataGraphs (frequency polygon, pie chart, boxplot, stem-and-leaf chart)Measures of central tendency (modem, median, meanMeasures of variability (range, quartile deviation, variance, standard deviation)Measures of relative position (percentile ranks, standard scores)Measures of relationship (Spearman Rho, Pearson r
16 How do You Represent Findings? Comparison tableDescriptive tableHierarchical treeFigures/diagramsDrawingsEducational Research 2e: Creswell
17 How do You Interpret Findings? Interpretation is not neutralReflect about the personal meaning of the dataCompare and contrast personal viewpoints with the literatureAddress limitations of the studyMake suggestions for future researchEducational Research 2e: Creswell
18 How do You Validate the Accuracy of Your Findings? Member checking: Members check the accuracy of the accountTriangulation: Using corroborate evidenceExternal: Hiring the services of an individual outside the study to review the studyEducational Research 2e: Creswell
19 Drawing ConclusionsYour findings and conclusions need to flow from analysis and show clear relevance to your overall projectFindings should be considered in light ofsignificancecurrent research literaturelimitations of the studyyour questions, aims, objectives, and theoryO'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 11.
20 Summary of the lecture steps of data analysis include: Preparing data for analysis by scoring, tabulating and coding.Managing Data, by choosing the appropriate software, developing a data management system, systematically organizing and screening data, entering the data into a program and the Selecting right statistical testInterpret FindingsValidate the accuracy of findingsDraw Conclusionspresent data
21 Feedback questionsPut T if the statement is true and F if it is false 1- The analysis of the data is as important as any other component of the research process T F 2-Data analysis is an eclectic process based on the on data reduction and interpretation 3- The first step in data analysis is to describe, or summarize, the data using descriptive statistics 4- To test a hypothesis adequately, more than descriptive statistics are normally needed 5- Tabulating: organizing the data in a systematic manner