2 Test YourselfA healthful diet is made up predominantly of fruits and vegetables.All foods sold in the United States must display a food label.MyPyramid is the graphic representation of the USDA Food Guide and can be used by most Americans to design a healthful diet.The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that all Americans should consume alcohol sensibly.TFTFTFTF
3 A Healthful DietA healthful diet provides the proper combination of energy and nutrients.Provides enough energy, nutrients, fiber, and vitamins to maintain a person’s health.A healthful diet is…AdequateModerateBalancedVaried
4 A Healthful Diet is Moderate Moderation refers to eating the right amounts of foods to maintain a healthful weight and optimize the body’s metabolic processes.Do you think the portion sizes of the typical American diet is appropriate and follows the rule of “moderation”?
5 A Healthful Diet is Balanced A balanced diet contains the combinations of foods to provide the proper proportion of nutrients.
6 A Healthful Diet is Varied Variety refers to eating different foods from the different food groups on a regular basis.Trying new foods on a regular basis to vary the diet.
7 Designing A Healthful Diet The tools for designing a healthful diet may include:Food LabelsDietary GuidelinesFood Guide PyramidDiet Plans
9 Food LabelsThe FDA requires food labels on most products. These labels must include:A statement of identityNet contents of the packageIngredients listManufacturer’s name and addressNutrition information (Nutrition Facts Panel)
10 Nutrition Facts PanelThe Nutrition Facts Panel contains the nutrition information required by the FDA.This information can be used in planning a healthful diet.
11 Nutrition Facts Panel Serving size and servings per container Serving sizes can be used to plan appropriate amounts of food.Standardized serving sizes allow for comparisons among similar products.Calories per serving and calories from fat per servingThis information can be used to determine if a product is relatively high in fat.
12 Nutrition Facts Panel List of nutrients Fat (total, saturated, trans) CholesterolSodiumCarbohydratesProteinSome vitamins and mineralsCalcium, iron, vitamin A, vitamin C
13 Nutrition Facts Panel Percent Daily Values (%DV) Tell how much a serving of food contributes to your overall intake of the listed nutrients.Compare %DV between foods for any nutrientBased onReference Daily Intake (RDI) standards for foods with RDA (protein and vitamins)Daily Reference Values (DRV) standards for foods without RDA (fiber, cholesterol, and saturated fats)
14 Nutrition Facts Panel Footnote %DV are based on a 2,000 calorie diet Table illustrates the difference between a 2,000 calorie and 2,500 calorie dietContains general dietary advice for all peopleMay not be present on all food labels
15 Nutrition Facts Panel Nutrition Claims Must meet FDA approved definitionsExamples: low-fat, sodium freeMay be helpful for choosing more healthful foodsAHigh confidenceSignificant scientific agreementApplies to claims listed in Table 2.2No disclaimer neededBModerate confidenceEvidence is not conclusive“although there is scientific evidence supporting the claim, the evidence is not conclusive”CLow confidenceEvidence is limited and not conclusive“Some scientific evidence suggests….however, FDA has determined that this evidence is limited and not conclusive”DExtremely low confidenceLittle scientific evidence supporting this claim“Very limited and preliminary scientific research suggests….FDA concludes that there is a little scientific evidence supporting this claim”
16 Dietary Guidelines Dietary Guidelines for Americans Developed by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture and U.S. Dept. of Health and Human ServicesGeneral advice for healthful diet and lifestyleUpdated every 5 yearsMost recent update was in 2005
18 Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 The 2005 Dietary Guidelines remain the current guidance until the 2010 Dietary Guidelines are published.
19 Adequate Nutrients within Calorie Needs Key RecommendationsConsume a variety of nutrient-dense foodsChoose foods that are limited in saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcoholBalanced eating patternsBalanced eating patterns:USDA Food Guide (MyPyramid)DASH Eating Plan
20 Weight ManagementOverweight or obese increases the risk for many chronic diseases:Heart disease, diabetes, some cancersKey recommendations:Maintain body weight within healthful range by balancing calories from foods and beverages with calories expendedPrevent weight gain… make small decreases in calorie intake and increase physical activity
21 Physical Activity Key recommendations Regular physical activities promote health, psychological well-being, and healthful weightPhysical fitness include cardiovascular conditioning, stretching exercises for flexibility, and resistance exercise30-minutes daily minimum of moderate activity60-90 min./day on most days of the week to prevent weight gain or promote weight loss
22 Food Groups to Encourage A variety of fruits and vegetablesKey nutrients: Vitamins A and C, beta caroteneSufficient amounts of fruits and vegetables each day while staying within energy needsChoose a variety from 5 vegetable subgroups:3 or more ounces/day of whole grain foods3 cups/day of low-fat or fat-free milk or equivalent
23 Fats Essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins Energy dense Diets high in saturated fats, trans fats, and cholesterol increase blood cholesterol levels are a risk for heart diseaseKey recommendations:Less than 10% of calories from saturated fatLess than 300 mg/day of cholesterolTrans fats should be as low as possibleTotal fats: 20-30% total calories (lean protein sources)
24 Carbohydrates Important source of energy and essential nutrients Key recommendationsChoose fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, whole grainsPrepare foods with little added sugarLimit intake of foods high in sugar and starchReduce the risk of dental caries (cavities):Practice good oral hygieneEat high sugar or starch foods less frequently
25 Sodium and Potassium Essential for health in appropriate amounts Potassium is linked with healthful blood pressureExcess sodium consumption:Linked to high blood pressure in some peopleCan cause loss of calcium from bonesKey recommendations:Consume less than 2,300 mg/day sodium (1 tsp. salt)Choose and prepare food with little saltConsume potassium-rich foods (fruits, vegetables)
26 Alcoholic Beverages Alcohol provides calories, but no nutrients Depresses the nervous systemToxic to the liver and other body cellsExcess can lead to health and social problemsKey recommendations:Drink sensibly and in moderationModeration: 1 drink for women, 2 for men per dayPeople who should not drink alcohol include…Women of child-bearing agePregnant or lactating women, children, adolescentsPersons on medications that can interact with alcohol
28 Food Safety Healthful diet is safe from foodborne illness Important tips:Store and cook foods at the proper temperatureAvoid unpasteurized juices and milk, raw or undercooked meats and shellfishWash hands and cooking surfaces before cooking and after handling raw meats, shellfish, and eggs
30 MyPyramid: Food Guide Pyramid MyPyramid can be used to plan a healthful diet.Conceptual framework for the types and amounts of foods people can eat in combination to provide a healthful dietDeveloped by the USDAWill change as more is learned about nutritionBased on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Dietary Reference IntakesPersonalized guide accessible on the Internet
32 MyPyramid: Food Guide Pyramid Designed to result in the following changesIncrease intake of vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and essential nutrientsLower intakes of saturated fats, trans fats, and cholesterol; increase intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole grainsBalance energy intake with energy expenditure to prevent weight gain and/or to promote a healthful weight
33 MyPyramid: Food Guide Pyramid Six food groups:GrainsVegetablesFruitsOilsMilkMeat
34 MyPyramid: Grains “Making half your grains whole” Eat at least 3 ounces of whole grain breads, cereal, crackers, rice, or pasta each dayFoods in this group provide fiber-rich carbohydrates and are good sources of the nutrients riboflavin, thiamin, niacin, iron, folate, zinc, protein, and magnesium
35 MyPyramid: Vegetables & Fruits “Vary your veggies”Eat more dark green and orange vegetables and more dry beans and peas“Focus on Fruits”Go easy on fruit juicesFruits and vegetables are good sources of carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins A and C, folate, potassium, and magnesium
36 MyPyramid: Vegetables & Fruits PhytochemicalsNaturally occurring plant chemicals such as pigments that enhance healthWork together in whole foods in a unique way to provide health benefitsTaking individual phytochemical supplements may not work as effectively in disease prevention as consuming phytochemicals from whole foodsFound in soy, garlic, onions, teas, coffeeScientific study of phytochemicals is newMay reduce risks for chronic diseases (cancer and cardiovascular disease)
37 MyPyramid: Oils “Know your fats” Encourage people to select health-promoting forms of fats: fat from fish, nuts, and vegetable oilsLimit solid fats: butter, stick margarine, shortening, lard, and visible fat on meat
38 MyPyramid: Milk “Get your calcium rich foods” Suggest low-fat or fat-free dairy productsPeople who cannot consume dairy can choose lower-lactose or lactose-free dairy products or other calcium sources:Calcium-fortified juices and soy and rice beveragesDairy foods are good sources of calcium, phosphorus, riboflavin, protein, vitamin B-12Many are fortified with vitamins A and D
39 MyPyramid: Meat & Beans “Go lean on Protein”Include meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, nutsEncourage low-fat or lean meats and poultryCooking methods: baking, broiling, grillingGood sources of protein, phosphorus, vitamins B6 and B12, magnesium, iron, zinc, niacin, riboflavin, and thiaminLegumes: good sources of fiber and vitamins (vegetables), proteins and minerals (meats)
40 MyPyramid: Discretionary Calories Recent conceptRepresent the extra energy a person can consume after he or she has met all essential needs by consuming nutrient–dense foodsDepends upon age, gender, physical activityFoods that use discretionary calories:fats: butter, salad dressing, mayonnaise, gravyhigh sugar foods: candies, desserts, soft drinks
41 MyPyramid: Serving Sizes What is considered a serving size?Grains (1 ounce-equivalent):1 slice of bread1 cup ready-to-eat cereal1/2 cup cooked rice, pasta, or cerealVegetables (1 cup equivalent):2 cups raw leafy vegetable (spinach)1 cup chopped raw or cooked vegetable (broccoli)
42 MyPyramid: Serving Sizes What is considered a serving size?Meats3 ounces of meat is equal to 3 ounce-equivalent2-3 oz. of meat is about the size of a deck of cards1 egg, l tablespoon peanut butter, and 1/4 cup cooked dry beans are 1 oz. equivalents in the meat and beans group
43 MyPyramid: Serving Sizes There is no national standardized definition for a serving size of any foodServing size may differ from food labelsServing sizes are often smaller than the quantities Americans typically eat.
44 Alternate Food Guide Pyramids Variations of MyPyramid not yet developed for diverse populationAdaptations of previous versions of USDA Food Guide Pyramid:Athletes – emphasized fluid replacementChildren and adults over age 70Vegetarian Diet PyramidMediterranean Diet PyramidEthnic and cultural variations
45 Eating an Adequate Diet An Adequate Diet provides enough energy, nutrients, and fiber for health.Optimal energy controlInadequate energy deprives the body of adequate nutrients.Too many calories result in weight gainOptimal number of calories and servings as recommended by MyPyramid helps to maintain the proper balance of dietary energy.Use discretionary calorie allowance wisely
46 Eat in Moderation MyPyramid recommends certain numbers of servings Foods high in fat and added sugarExcess intake leads to weight gain and could prevent adequate intake of vitamins, minerals, and fiberConsume small amounts only occasionallyModeration allows more nutritious foods without overeating
47 Eat a Balanced DietMyPyramid assists with planning a diet that provides the proper balance of nutrients from appropriate number of servings from each food group.
48 Eat a Variety of FoodsHealthful choice of foods generally is represented by many colors.Limiting food choices may be hazardous to your health!Possibly higher risk of premature deathNutritional inadequacies
49 Choose Foods High in Nutrient Density Foods high in nutrient density give the highest amount of nutrients for the least of energy (calories).Maximize the nutrients for each calorie consumed
50 Compare Your Diet to MyPyramid MyPyramid tracker: online food intake assessment toolScores the overall quality of your diet based on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines.Calculate nutrient intake from foodsCompare diet with MyPyramid guidelinesNutrient information from dietary supplementsHealthy Eating Index available
51 Limitations of MyPyramid Serving sizes are smallDo not always coincide with the standard amounts of foods we buy, prepare, and serveLow-fat and low-calorie foods not clearly definedIn response, Harvard researchers developed the Healthy Eating Pyramid:Highlights healthy food choicesEmphasizes daily exercise for weight control
53 Diet Plans No single diet that is right for all individuals Must fit personal preferences and lifestyleExamples of diet plans include:The 5-A-Day for Better Health Program - CDCThe DASH Diet Plan - NIH
55 Diet Plans The DASH Diet Plan Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Large research study funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH)Similar to MyPyramid: low-fat, high fiberConsume 8-10 servings of fruits & vegetables along with whole grains each dayStudies show that eating a low sodium diet, high in fruits and vegetables reduces blood pressure and decreases the risk for heart disease and stroke
56 Diet PlansOther diet plans may or may not have been researched to determine their health benefitsFor weight loss: Weight Watchers, The ZoneHealthful diet choices should be based on personal preferences, activity level, cultural considerations, cost, conveniencePlans should meet healthful guidelines and not omit any food groups
57 Diet Plans The Exchange System Designed by the American Dietetic Association and American Diabetes Association for people with diabetesUse for weight loss and meal planning6 food groups or exchange listsExchanges or portions are organized by the amount of calories, carbohydrates, protein, and fat in each food
58 Eating Out on a Healthful Diet Eating in restaurants often involves:High-calorie, high-fat and high-sodium foodsLarge portion sizesA restaurant meal can be equivalent to the recommended fat or calorie intake for an entire day!Educated consumers can make wise meal choices while dining out