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Designing a Healthful Diet

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1 Designing a Healthful Diet
Chapter 2

2 Test Yourself A healthful diet is made up predominantly of fruits and vegetables. All foods sold in the United States must display a food label. MyPyramid is the graphic representation of the USDA Food Guide and can be used by most Americans to design a healthful diet. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that all Americans should consume alcohol sensibly. T F T F T F T F

3 A Healthful Diet A healthful diet provides the proper combination of energy and nutrients. Provides enough energy, nutrients, fiber, and vitamins to maintain a person’s health. A healthful diet is… Adequate Moderate Balanced Varied

4 A Healthful Diet is Moderate
Moderation refers to eating the right amounts of foods to maintain a healthful weight and optimize the body’s metabolic processes. Do you think the portion sizes of the typical American diet is appropriate and follows the rule of “moderation”?

5 A Healthful Diet is Balanced
A balanced diet contains the combinations of foods to provide the proper proportion of nutrients.

6 A Healthful Diet is Varied
Variety refers to eating different foods from the different food groups on a regular basis. Trying new foods on a regular basis to vary the diet.

7 Designing A Healthful Diet
The tools for designing a healthful diet may include: Food Labels Dietary Guidelines Food Guide Pyramid Diet Plans

8 5 Primary Components Required on Food Labels

9 Food Labels The FDA requires food labels on most products. These labels must include: A statement of identity Net contents of the package Ingredients list Manufacturer’s name and address Nutrition information (Nutrition Facts Panel)

10 Nutrition Facts Panel The Nutrition Facts Panel contains the nutrition information required by the FDA. This information can be used in planning a healthful diet.

11 Nutrition Facts Panel Serving size and servings per container
Serving sizes can be used to plan appropriate amounts of food. Standardized serving sizes allow for comparisons among similar products. Calories per serving and calories from fat per serving This information can be used to determine if a product is relatively high in fat.

12 Nutrition Facts Panel List of nutrients Fat (total, saturated, trans)
Cholesterol Sodium Carbohydrates Protein Some vitamins and minerals Calcium, iron, vitamin A, vitamin C

13 Nutrition Facts Panel Percent Daily Values (%DV)
Tell how much a serving of food contributes to your overall intake of the listed nutrients. Compare %DV between foods for any nutrient Based on Reference Daily Intake (RDI) standards for foods with RDA (protein and vitamins) Daily Reference Values (DRV) standards for foods without RDA (fiber, cholesterol, and saturated fats)

14 Nutrition Facts Panel Footnote %DV are based on a 2,000 calorie diet
Table illustrates the difference between a 2,000 calorie and 2,500 calorie diet Contains general dietary advice for all people May not be present on all food labels

15 Nutrition Facts Panel Nutrition Claims
Must meet FDA approved definitions Examples: low-fat, sodium free May be helpful for choosing more healthful foods A High confidence Significant scientific agreement Applies to claims listed in Table 2.2 No disclaimer needed B Moderate confidence Evidence is not conclusive “although there is scientific evidence supporting the claim, the evidence is not conclusive” C Low confidence Evidence is limited and not conclusive “Some scientific evidence suggests….however, FDA has determined that this evidence is limited and not conclusive” D Extremely low confidence Little scientific evidence supporting this claim “Very limited and preliminary scientific research suggests….FDA concludes that there is a little scientific evidence supporting this claim”

16 Dietary Guidelines Dietary Guidelines for Americans
Developed by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture and U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services General advice for healthful diet and lifestyle Updated every 5 years Most recent update was in 2005

17 Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005

18 Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005
The 2005 Dietary Guidelines remain the current guidance until the 2010 Dietary Guidelines are published.

19 Adequate Nutrients within Calorie Needs
Key Recommendations Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods Choose foods that are limited in saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcohol Balanced eating patterns Balanced eating patterns: USDA Food Guide (MyPyramid) DASH Eating Plan

20 Weight Management Overweight or obese increases the risk for many chronic diseases: Heart disease, diabetes, some cancers Key recommendations: Maintain body weight within healthful range by balancing calories from foods and beverages with calories expended Prevent weight gain… make small decreases in calorie intake and increase physical activity

21 Physical Activity Key recommendations
Regular physical activities promote health, psychological well-being, and healthful weight Physical fitness include cardiovascular conditioning, stretching exercises for flexibility, and resistance exercise 30-minutes daily minimum of moderate activity 60-90 min./day on most days of the week to prevent weight gain or promote weight loss

22 Food Groups to Encourage
A variety of fruits and vegetables Key nutrients: Vitamins A and C, beta carotene Sufficient amounts of fruits and vegetables each day while staying within energy needs Choose a variety from 5 vegetable subgroups: 3 or more ounces/day of whole grain foods 3 cups/day of low-fat or fat-free milk or equivalent

23 Fats Essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins Energy dense
Diets high in saturated fats, trans fats, and cholesterol increase blood cholesterol levels are a risk for heart disease Key recommendations: Less than 10% of calories from saturated fat Less than 300 mg/day of cholesterol Trans fats should be as low as possible Total fats: 20-30% total calories (lean protein sources)

24 Carbohydrates Important source of energy and essential nutrients
Key recommendations Choose fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, whole grains Prepare foods with little added sugar Limit intake of foods high in sugar and starch Reduce the risk of dental caries (cavities): Practice good oral hygiene Eat high sugar or starch foods less frequently

25 Sodium and Potassium Essential for health in appropriate amounts
Potassium is linked with healthful blood pressure Excess sodium consumption: Linked to high blood pressure in some people Can cause loss of calcium from bones Key recommendations: Consume less than 2,300 mg/day sodium (1 tsp. salt) Choose and prepare food with little salt Consume potassium-rich foods (fruits, vegetables)

26 Alcoholic Beverages Alcohol provides calories, but no nutrients
Depresses the nervous system Toxic to the liver and other body cells Excess can lead to health and social problems Key recommendations: Drink sensibly and in moderation Moderation: 1 drink for women, 2 for men per day People who should not drink alcohol include… Women of child-bearing age Pregnant or lactating women, children, adolescents Persons on medications that can interact with alcohol

27 Alcohol Serving Sizes

28 Food Safety Healthful diet is safe from foodborne illness
Important tips: Store and cook foods at the proper temperature Avoid unpasteurized juices and milk, raw or undercooked meats and shellfish Wash hands and cooking surfaces before cooking and after handling raw meats, shellfish, and eggs

29 MyPyramid: Food Guide Pyramid

30 MyPyramid: Food Guide Pyramid
MyPyramid can be used to plan a healthful diet. Conceptual framework for the types and amounts of foods people can eat in combination to provide a healthful diet Developed by the USDA Will change as more is learned about nutrition Based on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Dietary Reference Intakes Personalized guide accessible on the Internet

31 MyPyramid: Food Guide Pyramid
MyPyramid promotes 6 health messages: Activity Moderation Personalization Proportionality Variety Gradual improvement

32 MyPyramid: Food Guide Pyramid
Designed to result in the following changes Increase intake of vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and essential nutrients Lower intakes of saturated fats, trans fats, and cholesterol; increase intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains Balance energy intake with energy expenditure to prevent weight gain and/or to promote a healthful weight

33 MyPyramid: Food Guide Pyramid
Six food groups: Grains Vegetables Fruits Oils Milk Meat

34 MyPyramid: Grains “Making half your grains whole”
Eat at least 3 ounces of whole grain breads, cereal, crackers, rice, or pasta each day Foods in this group provide fiber-rich carbohydrates and are good sources of the nutrients riboflavin, thiamin, niacin, iron, folate, zinc, protein, and magnesium

35 MyPyramid: Vegetables & Fruits
“Vary your veggies” Eat more dark green and orange vegetables and more dry beans and peas “Focus on Fruits” Go easy on fruit juices Fruits and vegetables are good sources of carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins A and C, folate, potassium, and magnesium

36 MyPyramid: Vegetables & Fruits
Phytochemicals Naturally occurring plant chemicals such as pigments that enhance health Work together in whole foods in a unique way to provide health benefits Taking individual phytochemical supplements may not work as effectively in disease prevention as consuming phytochemicals from whole foods Found in soy, garlic, onions, teas, coffee Scientific study of phytochemicals is new May reduce risks for chronic diseases (cancer and cardiovascular disease)

37 MyPyramid: Oils “Know your fats”
Encourage people to select health-promoting forms of fats: fat from fish, nuts, and vegetable oils Limit solid fats: butter, stick margarine, shortening, lard, and visible fat on meat

38 MyPyramid: Milk “Get your calcium rich foods”
Suggest low-fat or fat-free dairy products People who cannot consume dairy can choose lower-lactose or lactose-free dairy products or other calcium sources: Calcium-fortified juices and soy and rice beverages Dairy foods are good sources of calcium, phosphorus, riboflavin, protein, vitamin B-12 Many are fortified with vitamins A and D

39 MyPyramid: Meat & Beans
“Go lean on Protein” Include meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, nuts Encourage low-fat or lean meats and poultry Cooking methods: baking, broiling, grilling Good sources of protein, phosphorus, vitamins B6 and B12, magnesium, iron, zinc, niacin, riboflavin, and thiamin Legumes: good sources of fiber and vitamins (vegetables), proteins and minerals (meats)

40 MyPyramid: Discretionary Calories
Recent concept Represent the extra energy a person can consume after he or she has met all essential needs by consuming nutrient–dense foods Depends upon age, gender, physical activity Foods that use discretionary calories: fats: butter, salad dressing, mayonnaise, gravy high sugar foods: candies, desserts, soft drinks

41 MyPyramid: Serving Sizes
What is considered a serving size? Grains (1 ounce-equivalent): 1 slice of bread 1 cup ready-to-eat cereal 1/2 cup cooked rice, pasta, or cereal Vegetables (1 cup equivalent): 2 cups raw leafy vegetable (spinach) 1 cup chopped raw or cooked vegetable (broccoli)

42 MyPyramid: Serving Sizes
What is considered a serving size? Meats 3 ounces of meat is equal to 3 ounce-equivalent 2-3 oz. of meat is about the size of a deck of cards 1 egg, l tablespoon peanut butter, and 1/4 cup cooked dry beans are 1 oz. equivalents in the meat and beans group

43 MyPyramid: Serving Sizes
There is no national standardized definition for a serving size of any food Serving size may differ from food labels Serving sizes are often smaller than the quantities Americans typically eat.

44 Alternate Food Guide Pyramids
Variations of MyPyramid not yet developed for diverse population Adaptations of previous versions of USDA Food Guide Pyramid: Athletes – emphasized fluid replacement Children and adults over age 70 Vegetarian Diet Pyramid Mediterranean Diet Pyramid Ethnic and cultural variations

45 Eating an Adequate Diet
An Adequate Diet provides enough energy, nutrients, and fiber for health. Optimal energy control Inadequate energy deprives the body of adequate nutrients. Too many calories result in weight gain Optimal number of calories and servings as recommended by MyPyramid helps to maintain the proper balance of dietary energy. Use discretionary calorie allowance wisely

46 Eat in Moderation MyPyramid recommends certain numbers of servings
Foods high in fat and added sugar Excess intake leads to weight gain and could prevent adequate intake of vitamins, minerals, and fiber Consume small amounts only occasionally Moderation allows more nutritious foods without overeating

47 Eat a Balanced Diet MyPyramid assists with planning a diet that provides the proper balance of nutrients from appropriate number of servings from each food group.

48 Eat a Variety of Foods Healthful choice of foods generally is represented by many colors. Limiting food choices may be hazardous to your health! Possibly higher risk of premature death Nutritional inadequacies

49 Choose Foods High in Nutrient Density
Foods high in nutrient density give the highest amount of nutrients for the least of energy (calories). Maximize the nutrients for each calorie consumed

50 Compare Your Diet to MyPyramid
MyPyramid tracker: online food intake assessment tool Scores the overall quality of your diet based on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines. Calculate nutrient intake from foods Compare diet with MyPyramid guidelines Nutrient information from dietary supplements Healthy Eating Index available

51 Limitations of MyPyramid
Serving sizes are small Do not always coincide with the standard amounts of foods we buy, prepare, and serve Low-fat and low-calorie foods not clearly defined In response, Harvard researchers developed the Healthy Eating Pyramid: Highlights healthy food choices Emphasizes daily exercise for weight control

52 Harvard Healthy Eating Pyramid

53 Diet Plans No single diet that is right for all individuals
Must fit personal preferences and lifestyle Examples of diet plans include: The 5-A-Day for Better Health Program - CDC The DASH Diet Plan - NIH

54 Five-A-Day Program Five servings (minimum) a day of fruits and vegetables Recommended for optimal health and to prevent chronic disease such as obesity, heart disease, and cancer Less than 25% of Americans get this amount Becoming Fruits and Veggies -More Matters Rationale for this program: High in water content Low in kcal High in vit/min, esp. vitamins A&C High in fiber High in phytochemicals Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

55 Diet Plans The DASH Diet Plan Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
Large research study funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Similar to MyPyramid: low-fat, high fiber Consume 8-10 servings of fruits & vegetables along with whole grains each day Studies show that eating a low sodium diet, high in fruits and vegetables reduces blood pressure and decreases the risk for heart disease and stroke

56 Diet Plans Other diet plans may or may not have been researched to determine their health benefits For weight loss: Weight Watchers, The Zone Healthful diet choices should be based on personal preferences, activity level, cultural considerations, cost, convenience Plans should meet healthful guidelines and not omit any food groups

57 Diet Plans The Exchange System
Designed by the American Dietetic Association and American Diabetes Association for people with diabetes Use for weight loss and meal planning 6 food groups or exchange lists Exchanges or portions are organized by the amount of calories, carbohydrates, protein, and fat in each food

58 Eating Out on a Healthful Diet
Eating in restaurants often involves: High-calorie, high-fat and high-sodium foods Large portion sizes A restaurant meal can be equivalent to the recommended fat or calorie intake for an entire day! Educated consumers can make wise meal choices while dining out

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