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Designing a Healthful Diet

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1 Designing a Healthful Diet

2 Read this note before going further (!).
Of all the chapters in the text, this one is the most U.S.-centric. It simply gives no consideration to other models of diet planning. I do want you to read the entire text and view this slide show. I will mark slides with a (!) at the top when I want you to know a slide for the quiz. The others are not on the quiz. The discussion board will be focused on rules for diet planning that you know and that are appropriate to your country/setting.

3 A Healthful Diet (!) A healthful diet is Adequate Moderate Balanced

4 A Healthful Diet Is Adequate (!)
An adequate diet provides enough energy, nutrients, fiber, vitamins, and mineral to support a person’s health. A diet adequate in many nutrients can still be inadequate in a few nutrients.

5 A Healthful Diet Is Moderate (!)
Another key to a healthful diet is moderation. A healthful diet contains the right amounts of foods for maintaining proper weight.

6 A Healthful Diet Is Balanced (!)
A balanced diet contains the right combinations of foods to provide the proper balance of nutrients.

7 A Healthful Diet Is Varied (!)
Variety: eating many different types of foods each day. A healthful diet is not based on only one or a few types of foods.

8 Designing a Healthful Diet* (!)
In the U.S., there are a variety of tools for designing a healthful diet. They may include: Food labels (I do want you to know this part.) Dietary Guidelines for Americans MyPyramid—the Food Guide Pyramid Eating plans *In our discussion board for this chapter I’ll ask you what tools for planning healthful diets you know about from your experiences or from your country.

9 Food Labels (!) The US Food and Drug Administration requires food labels on most products. These labels must include A statement of identity Net contents of the package Ingredient list Manufacturer’s name and address Nutrition information (Nutrition Facts Panel)

10 Nutrition Facts Panel (!)
The Nutrition Facts Panel contains the nutrition information required by the FDA. This information can be used in planning a healthful diet. Figure 2.2

11 Nutrition Facts Panel (!)
1. Serving size and servings per container Serving sizes can be used to plan appropriate amounts of food Standardized serving sizes allow for comparisons among similar products Figure 2.2

12 Nutrition Facts Panel (!)
2. Calories per serving and calories from fat per serving This information can be used to determine if a product is relatively high in fat Figure 2.2

13 Nutrition Facts Panel (!)
3. List of nutrients Fat (total, saturated and trans) Cholesterol Sodium Carbohydrates Protein Some (not many!) vitamins and minerals

14 Nutrition Facts Panel (!)
Figure 2.2

15 Nutrition Facts Panel (!)
4. Percent Daily Values (%DV) Describes how much a serving of food contributes to your total intake of a nutrient Based on a diet of 2,000 calories per day Can be used to determine if a product is low or high in a particular nutrient

16 Nutrition Facts Panel (!)
4. Percent Daily Values (%DV) are based on Reference Daily Intakes (RDI) for foods with an RDA value Daily Reference Values (DRV) for foods without an RDA value

17 Nutrition Facts Panel (!)
Figure 2.2

18 Nutrition Facts Panel (!)
5. Footnote Contains general dietary advice for all people Must be present on all food labels Also compares a 2,000 calorie diet with a 2,500 calorie diet

19 Nutrition Facts Panel (!)
Figure 2.2

20 Nutrient Claims (!) FDA has approved several claims related to health and disease. Nutrient must be related to a disease or health condition for which people are at risk.

21 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (!)
General advice for nutrition and health from the U.S. Department of Health and Social Services U.S. Department of Agriculture Revised every 5 years (most recently in 2005) Emphasize good food choices and physical activity

22 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (!)
Maintain body weight in a healthy range Engage in regular physical activity Eat a wide variety of fruits and vegetables Choose high fiber and whole grain foods Limit total, saturated and trans fats Limit sodium intake Moderate alcohol consumption

23 Dietary Guidelines Nutrition recommendations for Canada and the United Kingdom General guidelines for a healthful diet Similar to Dietary Guidelines for Americans

24 MyPyramid MyPyramid can be used to plan a healthful diet.
Graphic representation of the types and relative quantities of foods for good nutrition Developed in 2005 by U.S. Department of Health and Social Services U.S. Department of Agriculture Will continue to change as more is learned about nutrition

25 MyPyramid Figure 2.5 (1 of 2)

26 MyPyramid MyPyramid emphasizes Physical activity Moderation
Personalization Proportionality Variety Gradual improvement

27 MyPyramid Figure 2.5 (1 of 2)

28 MyPyramid Figure 2.5 (2 of 2)

29 MyPyramid MyPyramid food guidance system aims to
Increase the intake of vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and other essential nutrients Lower the intake of fats and cholesterol and increase the intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains Balance energy intake with energy expenditure to maintain a healthy body weight

30 Food Guide Pyramids Alternate food guide pyramids include
Canada’s Food Guide to Healthy Eating Vegetarian Diet Pyramid Mediterranean Diet Pyramid Latin American Diet Pyramid Asian Diet Pyramid Children and Older Adult Pyramid

31 Vegetarian Food Guide Pyramid
Figure 2.9a

32 Mediterranean Food Guide Pyramid
Figure 2.10

33 Latin American Diet Pyramid
Figure 2.9b

34 Asian Diet Pyramid Figure 2.9c

35 MyPyramid There is no standardized definition for a serving size of any food. Serving sizes listed in MyPyramid are often smaller than serving sizes on nutrition labels and smaller than the quantities Americans typically eat.

36 MyPyramid MyPyramid does not clearly define low-fat and low-calorie food choices. When making choices in each food group, nutrient dense foods are the best choice. Nutrient density: the relative amount of nutrients per calorie of food.

37 Low versus High Nutrient Density (
Low versus High Nutrient Density (!) [These two portions provide about the same energy, but vastly different nutrients…] Figure 2.11

38 Diet Plans Eating plans can be used to design a healthful diet.
Examples of eating plans include The DASH Diet Plan The Exchange System

39 Diet Plans: The DASH Diet Plan
Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Similar to MyPyramid except that DASH recommends more fruits and vegetables Limits sodium intake to 3,000 mg/day Has been shown to reduce blood pressure

40 Diet Plans: The Exchange System
Designed by the American Dietetic Association and American Diabetes Association for people with diabetes Six food groups or exchange lists Food is grouped in an exchange list based on its content of calories, carbohydrates, protein, and fat

41 Diet Plans: Exchange Groups
Table 2.5 (1 of 2)

42 Diet Plans: Exchange Groups
Table 2.5 (2 of 2)

43 Diet Plans: Exchange System
Figure 2.15

44 Eating Out on a Healthful Diet
Eating in restaurants often involves High-fat foods Large portion sizes A restaurant meal can be equivalent to the recommended fat or calorie intake for an entire day!

45 Eating Out on a Healthful Diet (!)
Tips for restaurant meals Avoid breaded foods Avoid deep fried foods – especially fried potatoes Order salad (with dressing on the side) instead of soup Substitute vegetables for potatoes or rice Eat small portions of cream sauces or cheese sauces or skip them altogether Be mindful of the portion size offered – many restaurants serve portions that would several people, not just one.

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