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What was the Renaissance about?

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Presentation on theme: "What was the Renaissance about?"— Presentation transcript:

1 What was the Renaissance about?
“It has something to do with art… Doesn’t it?”

2 Middle Ages to “Rebirth”
The Renaissance was the time in European history that followed the Middle Ages, and by French to English translation means “rebirth.” Rebirth is the exactly what it was; it was a time of change in their whole outlook on life, their daily life, and how they could express themselves in art and other forms.

3 How did things change from the Middle Ages?
During the Middle Ages art and learning were centered on the church and religion. But at the start of the 14th century, people became less interested in thinking about God, heaven and the saints, and more interested in thinking about themselves, their surroundings and their everyday lives. Part of this change was influenced by the study of ancient Greek and Roman writings on scientific matters, government, philosophy, and art. When scholars during the Renaissance began to study these writings, their interests turned away from traditional areas of study such as religion, medicine and the law. The people of the Renaissance became interested in other areas of science, the natural world, biology and astronomy. People now studied mathematics, engineering, and architecture. Artists, writers, musicians and composers began creating work outside of the church. Artists signed their work and authors wrote autobiographies and memoirs — stories about themselves.

4 Humanism The values and ideals popular during the European Renaissance can be described by the term secular humanism: secular, meaning not religious and humanism, meaning placing the study and progress of human nature at the center of interests

5 Hieratic Scale in the Middle Ages
The rise of Humanism can be seen in paintings created by Renaissance artists. During the Middle Ages, saints in paintings wore halos (a ring or circle of light) around their heads. Artists also used hieratic scale in paintings during the Middle Ages, making saints or members of the family of God larger in scale than ordinary or less important figures. Jacopa di Cione Madonna and Child in Glory 1360/65 Tempera and gold on panel

6 The central figures of the Madonna and child in this painting from the late Middle Ages are much larger than the four saints who stand below the Madonna or the angels gathered around the upper edges of the painting. The artists made the Madonna and child larger to help viewers understand that they are the most important figures in the painting.

7 Popularity of Humanism
As Humanism became more popular during the Renaissance, ordinary people grew to be the same size as saints in paintings and saints began to look more like ordinary people. For example, halos became fainter and eventually disappeared during the Renaissance. Saints occupied the same landscape as ordinary people in Renaissance paintings and the landscape was earth instead of heaven. Giovanni Agostino da Lodi Adoration of the Shepherds 1510 Oil on panel

8 In the Middle Ages it was common for artists to represent figures of heaven against a gold background, a symbol for the beauty and value of the atmosphere of heaven. As Renaissance artists experimented with new Humanist ideas, the natural landscape began to appear as a background in paintings. Saints left their golden atmosphere to occupy the same gardens, forests and buildings that everyday people lived in.

9 Early Perspective During the Renaissance, the use mathematical perspective to represent space in paintings was invented. Earlier attempts at representing space often resulted in furniture or buildings that look just a little "off." This tempera painting, made in the early Renaissance, is an example of perspective that looks a little "off.“ Each item in this painting, the altar, the screen in the Background, etc. is accurately represented, but put them all together and they don't quite fit. Franconia School Miraculous Mass of St. Martin of Tours about 1440 Tempera and gold on canvas on panel

10 Holy Trinity - Masaccio
Perspective Perspective is a technique for representing three-dimensional space on a flat surface. Many artists around the world have employed various techniques for portraying depth. However, it wasn't until the Renaissance that artists invented a mathematical system to show depth logically and consistently. The system of linear perspective gave artists a powerful new tool for creating realistic art. Holy Trinity - Masaccio

11 School of Athens - Raphael
Linear perspective Linear perspective is based on the way the human eye sees the world—objects which are closer appear larger, and more distant objects appear smaller. To create this illusion of space, the artist establishes a vanishing point on the horizon line. Objects are drawn using orthogonal lines which lead to the vanishing point(s). School of Athens - Raphael

12 Well known Renaissance “Artists”
Some well known “Artists” of the Renaissance. Peter Laird & Kevin Eastman Creators “We both had studied art history, so we picked Raphael, Donatello, Leonardo and Michelangelo." Peter Laird & Kevin Eastman Creators “We both had studied art history, so we picked Raphael, Donatello, Leonardo and Michelangelo."

13 Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa 1503-1506, oil on wood panel
Leonardo da Vinci was born in 1452 and died in His most famous works are the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper, which are works in oil. He had a nature that was careful and precise, so he never hurried to finish a work. He developed what are regarded as technical, manual skills that were so excellent that few artists in history have rivaled his ability. He had an exceptional intellect and fascination with the world around him. Besides his paintings, he did detailed drawings of the human anatomy, plans for a tank, a helicopter, and ideas on the construction of multi-level canal and road systems. He was an artist and a scientist. Notice the Perspective in the background of the portrait Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa , oil on wood panel

14 “The Last Supper” Study of proportions

15 Michelangelo Creation of man (detail) 1511 fresco Sistine Chapel “Moses” Michelangelo was born 1475 and died In the 89 years that he lived, he created many of the works of art that we think of when we think of the Renaissance. He was a skilled painter who spent many years completing the frescoes that adorn the Sistine Chapel. Michelangelo had trained as a sculptor and created two of the world's greatest statues—the enormous David and the emotional Pieta. Michelangelo Buonarroti of Florence was one of the greatest artists of all time. Like Leonardo, Michelangelo was a "Renaissance man" of many talents. He was a sculptor, a painter, and an architect. When Michelangelo carved a statue of Moses, he included veins and muscles in the arms and legs. Michelangelo's paintings cover the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, the building where new popes have been selected for more than 500 years. Michelangelo's painting illustrates the Book of Genesis, with scenes that span from the Creation to the Flood. The project was very difficult. Working alone, Michelangelo had to lie on his back atop high scaffolding while he painted the vast ceiling.

16 “David” “Pieta”

17 Donatello Donatello was born in 1386 and died in He was famous for many things including the youthful sculpture of David in Florence. Donatello was one of the earliest artists working with the idea of perspective. His method was sculpture and he brought dramatic shapes to life with his skills.

18 Raphael Raphael was born in 1483 and died Popular with the popes of the period, Raphael decorated the papal apartments of Julius II, continued to do so under Leo X. Following Bramante, he served as architect of St. Peter's. He is credited with revolutionizing portrait painting because of the style he used in the portrait of Julius II. He also designed the "cartoons" that are on the tapestries of the Sistine Chapel. A tour of the Vatican Museums should include the Raphael Rooms where you can see some of the artist's works (though Raphael died suddenly on Good Friday, 1520, before all the work was completed, and much of it was finished by his students). In his painting The School of Athens, he reflected the classical influence upon Renaissance art.

19 “School of Athens” In his painting The School of Athens, he reflected the classical influence upon Renaissance art, but he also paid tribute to the men who inspired him by using the faces of da Vinci, Bramante, and Michelangelo as philosophers participating in the debate between Plato and Aristotle.

20 The Humanists of the Renaissance and their exploration of the belief that human beings can live full and happy lives before they go to heaven is still with us. Many aspects of the lives we lead, including the way school is taught and the subjects that we study, began in the Renaissance and continue to influence the way we live today.

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