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Environmental Legislation & Regulations Professor Natalie Carroll ASM 336 September 18, 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Legislation & Regulations Professor Natalie Carroll ASM 336 September 18, 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Legislation & Regulations Professor Natalie Carroll ASM 336 September 18, 2005

2 Who governs environmental laws and policies? US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): The governing body for major statues or laws National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)-1969: establishes policies, set goals and facilitate the implementation of such policies NEPA requires federal agencies to assess environmental impact of implementing their major program (Work with NASA & Army)

3 Positive Aspects of Regulations Protection of the Environment

4 Concerns about Regulations Structured so costs excessive compared to benefits. Command-and-control US Free Market Choice Uneven application of regulations Lack properly structured incentives Generate inefficiencies Paper work, costs Duplicative (Federal, State, etc)

5 Environmental Regulations Clean Air Act (CAA)-1970 Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)-1974 Clean Water Act (CWA)-1977 Resource Conservation & Recovery Act (RCRA) - 1976 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA)-1980 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide & Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) -1972 Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) -1996

6 Clean Air Act (CAA) - 1970 Diesel Engines Odor

7 Safe Drinking Water Act Protect nation’s sources of drinking water Protect public health through treatment techniques MCL’s: Maximum Contaminant Level Protect underground sources of drinking water Well Head protection areas

8 Clean Water Act (1972) Water Pollution Control Restore & maintain chemical, physical and biological integrity of the nation’s waters Community sewers NPS pollution control (TMDL’s!!!) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Phase II Stormwater Regulations

9 Resource Conservation & Recovery Act (RCRA) Hazardous Waste Underground tanks Control Solid Waste Regulation of facilities which burn waste

10 Comprehensive Environment Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Also known as the Superfund Establish a Hazardous Substance Superfund Establish regulations controlling hazardous waste sites Provide liability for hazardous waste release from inactive sites

11 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA)-1986 Revise and extends CERCLA Emergency planning & preparedness, community right-to-know reporting and toxic chemical release reporting Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)

12 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Regulates the use and safety of pesticides products and features Classification and certification of pesticide by specific use Evaluation of risk posed by pesticides (Required for registration) Restriction of use of pesticides harmful to the environment Enforcement of requirements through inspections, labeling, notices and state regulations Groundwater management plan

13 Additional Regulations Wild and Scenic Rivers Act -establishes wild and scenic river system Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) - balanced preservation & development in coastal areas Endangered Species Act - conserve endangered and threatened species

14 Additional Regulations Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act - regulates dumping of all types of materials into ocean Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) - sets up toxic substances program - EPA can require manufacturers to collect data on effects of their substance National Historic Prevention Act -preserve, restore and maintain cultural resources

15 Additional Regulations Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) -1970 Oil Pollution Act (OPA)-1990 Endangered Species Act (ESA)-1973

16 The following slides were taken from a presentation given by Dr. Thomas L. Theis, Director of the Institute for Environmental Science and Policy, University of Illinois at Chicago. September 13, 2005, Purdue University Seminar title: Environmental Manufacturing Management: A New Approach to Sustainability

17 CONTEXT We Have Been Altering the Environment for a Long Time – but are Just Beginning to Take Responsibility Environmental Issues are Not Just More Global, but More Complex Firms are Increasingly Being Held Responsible for Environmental and Social Externalities With Which They are Associated

18 Sustainability Requires a Different Way of Thinking About How We Interact Within the Environment That: Stresses integration of our needs with those of our progeny Views the natural world as a constrained system Sees humanity as part of a symbiotic relationship with the world Recognizes the value of ecosystem services Understands the need to make decisions within a holistic framework


20 ERA TIME FRAME PRIMARY ACTIVITY PRIMARY FOCUS ENDPOINT ENVIRON- MENTAL VS. ECONOMICS CONCEPTUAL MODEL DISCIPLINARY APPROACH Pre-Regulatory (< 1965) PastSimple Controls / Burial Specific Site, End-of-Pipe Visual / Navigability OverheadLargely VoluntaryInsular -Reductionist Regulatory (1965- 1990) Past / Present Compliance / Remediation Specific Site, End of Pipe Reduce Anthropo- centric Risk Negative ProfitCommand-and- control Environmental Sciences / Engineering -Interdisciplinary Global (> 1990) Present / Future Industrial Ecology / Design for Environment Materials, Manufacturing, Products, Services Over Life Cycle Waste Minimization / Global Sustainability StrategicSystems Approach Physical / Chemical / Biological Sciences; Architecture; Law; Ethics; Urban Planning -Integrative HISTORICAL APPROACHES TO ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT


22 Final product and residuals measured at the factory, in terms of materials production. Traditional (Compliance) Perspective Raw materials Residuals: Waste & pollution Finished material

23 Systems (Optimization) Perspective Final product is measured in terms of service, rather than material, at end of chain rather than in middle. Film & paper production Film developing & printing Exposure (Capture) Storage Final Product

24 DRIVING FORCES Accelerated Costs of Environmental Compliance Legislation Focused on Product and Socially Responsible Stewardship New, More Efficient Processing Technologies Application of Life Cycle Analysis and Total Cost Accounting Ability to Measure More Accurately the Impacts of Waste Emissions

25 USEPA Policy Statement “…to move the Nation from a waste-oriented to a life cycle management way of thinking about materials”. (USEPA Strategic Plan, 2003-2008, p. 60)


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