Presentation on theme: "E NERGY S OURCES : F OSSIL F UELS Integrated Science C Mrs. Brostrom."— Presentation transcript:
E NERGY S OURCES : F OSSIL F UELS Integrated Science C Mrs. Brostrom
O BJECTIVES : Explain how internal energy of the Earth causes matter to cycle through the magma and the solid earth. Describe the availability, current uses and environmental issues related to the use of fossil to produce electricity.
E NERGY R ESOURCES Natural resources provide energy and raw materials for homes, commercial uses, and agriculture Almost all energy on Earth originates from the sun Photosynthesis allows plants to convert the sun’s energy into chemical energy (glucose) Animals use cellular respiration to convert glucose back to CO 2, H 2 0, and energy
F OSSIL F UELS Fossil fuel is a nonrenewable energy resource formed from the remains of plants and animals that lived long ago. A nonrenewable resource is used faster than natural processes can create them. Ex.) Oil, natural gas, coal Form deep underground Associated with sedimentary rocks Energy is released from fossil fuels when they are combusted (burned) Made up of hydrocarbons
F OSSIL F UEL F ORMATION 1. Microscopic ocean organisms die and are buried under layers of sedimentary rock where there is little oxygen 2. Heat from the Earth and pressure from the rock above causes a series of chemical reactions to take place 3. The reaction turns the organic compounds into H and C over millions of years
P ETROLEUM Petroleum is a liquid mixture of complex hydrocarbon compounds. Commonly known as crude oil Separated into different products through refining Gasoline, jet fuel, kerosene, diesel fuel, oil More than 40% of the world’s energy comes from petroleum 38.5% of world energy generation Formed from microscopic marine organisms
N ATURAL GAS Natural gas is a gaseous mixture of hydrocarbons. 23.6% of world energy generation Formed from microscopic marine organisms Used for heating and generating electricity Coal fired power plant in Bridgeport, CT was just Converted to natural gas Causes less air pollution that oil does Very flammable
C OAL Coal is a fossil fuel that formed underground from partially decomposed plant material. Was once the major source for energy in the US. 23.9% of world energy generation Burning coal produces large amounts of air pollution
C OAL F ORMATION Coal forms underground from decayed swamp plants over millions of years. 1. Bacteria and fungi change swamp plants into peat (60% carbon). 2. Sediment buries the peat, which increases temperature and pressure; changes into lignite (70% carbon). 3. As lignite becomes further buried, T and P continue to increase; becomes bituminous coal (80% carbon). 4. As bituminous coal becomes more buried, T and P continue to increase; anthracite forms (90% carbon).
W HERE ARE FOSSIL FUELS FOUND ? Middle East has 33% of the world’s natural gas and 67% of the world’s petroleum supply Asia, North America, Africa, and Europe have between 4-8% of the world’s petroleum supply Latin America which contains about 13% of the world’s petroleum supply Texas is the top petroleum producing state in the U.S. Natural gas is found in 32 out of the 50 U.S. states
H OW DO WE OBTAIN FOSSIL FUELS ? Drill oil wells on land and in the ocean Drill natural gas wells on land Hydraulic fracturing Mine coal Strip mining is when soil and rock are removed so the coal can be extracted Mountaintop removal
P ROBLEMS W ITH F OSSIL F UELS Methods of obtaining fossil fuels can have negative effects on the environment Habitat destruction Oil spills Pollute groundwater Lower water table Accidents endanger human lives
Burning of fossil fuels releases: Increase of greenhouse gases; CO 2 Acid rain; SO 2 and NO x Air pollution; Photochemical smog is a haze that forms when sunlight acts on industrial pollutants and NO x (car exhaust)
F OSSIL F UELES Vocabulary: Photosynthesis Chemical respiration Fossil fuel Nonrenewable resource Petroleum Natural gas Coal Photochemical smog Big Ideas: Formation of fossil fuels Current use of fuels