# Chapter 17 Mixed Method Designs

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Chapter 17 Mixed Method Designs

Key Ideas Brief history of mixed method research
Notation system for mixed method research Identifying a mixed method study Mixed method designs Strengths and weaknesses of mixed methods Steps in conducting a mixed method study Criteria for evaluating a mixed method study Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright ©2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

A Brief History of Mixed Method Research
Late 1950’s initial interest in mixing various forms of quantitative data collection 1970’s to present expansion of forms to include both quantitative and qualitative data Mid 1980’s to present question of mixing worldviews and methods Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright ©2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

A Brief History of Mixed Method Research

Identifying Mixed Method Research: Questions
Is the evidence in the title? Is there evidence in the data collection section? Is there evidence in the purpose section or research questions? Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright ©2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Questions for Determining the Types of Mixed Method Design
What priority or weight does the researcher give to the quantitative and qualitative data collection? What is the sequence of collecting quantitative and qualitative data? How does the researcher actually analyze the data? Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright ©2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Notation System for Mixed Method Study
Study #1 QUAL QUAN Study #2 QUAN qual Notation Used: + indicates the simultaneous or concurrent collection of quantitative and qualitative data. Shows sequential collection of quantitative and qualitative data Uppercase letters indicate a priority or increased weight for either quantitative and qualitative data. Lowercase letters indicate a lower priority or weight for either quantitative or qualitative data Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright ©2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Mixed Method Designs: Triangulation Design
Researcher gives priority to both quantitative (QUAN) and qualitative (QUAL) data Researcher collects both quantitative and qualitative data simultaneously Researcher compares the results from quantitative and qualitative analysis to determine if the two data bases yield similar or dissimilar results Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright ©2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Mixed Method Designs: Explanatory Design
Researcher places priority on quantitative (QUAN) data collection and analysis Research collects quantitative data first in the sequence Researcher uses the qualitative data to refine the results of the quantitative data Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright ©2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Mixed Method Designs: Exploratory Design
Research emphasizes qualitative (QUAL) data rather than quantitative (quan) data Researcher has a sequence to data collection that involves collecting quantitative data followed by qualitative data Researcher plans on the quantitative data to build on or explain the initial qualitative findings Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright ©2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Types of Mixed Method Designs
I. Triangulation Mixed Method Design QUAN Data and Results + QUAL Data and Results Interpretation II. Explanatory Mixed Method Design QUAN Data and Results qual Data and Results Follow-up III. Exploratory Mixed Method Design QUAN Data and Results quant Data and Results Building Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright ©2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Strengths and Weaknesses of Mixed Method Research
Helps to provide a complete picture of a research problem It is a means to incorporate qualitative data into a qualitative study Weaknesses Training is required in both quantitative and qualitative research methods Greater cost of time and money Not all audiences are open to mixed method studies Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright ©2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Key Characteristics of Mixed Method Design
Researcher justifies why both qualitative and quantitative data are being collected Both qualitative and quantitative data are collected Information about the priority being given to qualitative and quantitative data is noted Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright ©2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Key Characteristics of Mixed Method Design
Information about the sequencing of the quantitative and qualitative data collection is noted Analysis of the data is shaped by a particular mixed method design The study contains a visual picture that portrays the procedures of the design Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright ©2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Steps in Conducting a Mixed Method Study
Determine if a mixed method study is feasible Identify a rationale for mixing methods Identify a data collection strategy Develop both quantitative and qualitative questions Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright ©2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Steps in Conducting a Mixed Method Study
Collect both quantitative and qualitative data Analyze data separately or concurrently Write the report as a one- or two- phase study Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright ©2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Steps of Conducting a Mixed Methods Study
Develop quantitative and qualitative research questions Collect quantitative and quantitative data Step 4 Step 5 Identify the data collection strategy and type of design Priority Sequence Visualization Step 3 Analyze data separately or concurrently Step 6 Identify a Rationale for a Mixed Method Study Determine if a Mixed Method Study is Feasible Write the report as a One- or Two- Phase Study Step 2 Step 1 Step 7 Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright ©2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Criteria for Evaluating a Mixed Method Study
Does the study employ at least one quantitative method and one qualitative method? Is is called a mixed method (or a similar term) study? Is there a rationale for why the author intends to mix the methods in a single study and what will be gained in the process? Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright ©2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Criteria for Evaluating a Mixed Method Study
Does the author indicate the type of mixed method study being presented? Alternatively, can you identify the type from reading the rationale or from a visual figure depicting the flow of the data collection activities? Does the author mention the priority given to quantitative and qualitative data and the sequence of their use in the study? Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright ©2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Criteria for Evaluating a Mixed Method Study
Is the study feasible, given the data to be collected given the amount of money, time and expertise required? Have research questions been written for both quantitative and qualitative methods in the study? Have quantitative and qualitative data collection procedures been clearly identified? Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright ©2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Criteria for Evaluating a Mixed Method Study
Is the procedures for data analysis consistent with the type of mixed method study being presented? Is the written structure if the study consistent with the type of mixed method study being presented? Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright ©2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Applying What you Have Learned: Mixed Method Study
Review the article and look for the following: The research problem and use of quantitative research Use of the literature The purpose statement and research hypothesis Types and procedures of data collection Types and procedures of data analysis and interpretation The overall report structure Educational Research by John W. Creswell. Copyright ©2002 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Action Research Designs