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A case study of Nagoya city, Japan ABE, Ryogo(阿部 亮吾)

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Presentation on theme: "A case study of Nagoya city, Japan ABE, Ryogo(阿部 亮吾)"— Presentation transcript:

1 International migration and Filipino female entertainers coming to Japan:
A case study of Nagoya city, Japan ABE, Ryogo(阿部 亮吾) PD, Department of Geography, Nagoya University, Japan (名古屋大学大学院,地理学教室,PD研究員)

2 Today’s Presentation Globalization and ‘‘the age of migration’’
International migration and Filipino migrants Situations of Filipino female entertainers coming to Japan Appearance of Spaces of Philippines Pubs concentrating at SAKAE Walk Streets in Nagoya City, Japan Some conclusions Contents of today’s presentation

3 Globalizing World since 1970s
‘‘The Age of migration’’ (Castles & Miller, 1993: The Age of Migration. Macmillan Press. ) ①Globalisation of migration    ②Acceleration of -    ③Differentiation of -    ④Feminization of - → The Philippines is a symbolic state. Under the globalizing world since 1970s, Castles & Miller 1993 called the turn of the century as the age of migration. They picked up 4 dimensions of the age of migration. 1st…2nd…3rd…4th… The Phil should be situated as a symbolic and important state in this specific age.

4 Republic of the Philippines:
Male; Middle Eastern - Construction workers International migration out of the Philippines Republic of the Philippines: 30 million people, in 180 countries and areas all over the world 600 thousands by one year Female; Middle Eastern Asian NIEs Western countries - Domestic workers - Nurses The Republic of the Phil is now a superpower of the migration age. It has about 30 million overseas people in 180 countries and areas all over the world. Also today, It’s newly sending out 600 thousands each year. Then, There are different migration patterns by male or female. Filipino Male migrants go to Middle eastern countries as construction workers. On the other hand, female go to Middle Eastern countries, Asian NIEs, And Western Countries as domestic workers and nurses.

5 International migration out of the Philippines
But, Thinking the relationship between the Phil and Japan, we should find another dimension. It’s entertainers that come to Japan. Because of the Japanese immigration law, instead of construction workers, domestic workers and nurses, Filipino migrants came to Japan as entertainers. In addition, most of Filipino entertainers are women. This is an unique and prominent phenomenon which Japanese society holds. That’s my study theme. Today, I would like to explore the cause of this phenomenon on the Japanese side. ○Entertainers ×Domestic workers

6 Question 1 How many entertainers come to Japan from the Philippines?

7 The Number of Entertainers newly coming to Japan
82,000人 This table shows the number of entertainers newly coming to Japan each year. Black line is the total number of entertainers from all over the world. Blue line is the number from all Asian areas. Red line is from the Phil. Look at the red line. The half of the total number is from the Phil. You know. Here is the top. After 2004, the number of entertainer has quickly decreased because of the reform of Japanese immigration law. Today, no one can enter Japan as entertainers. 8,500人 53,000人 36,000人

8 How do Filipino Female Entertainers (FFEs) come
Question 2 How do Filipino Female Entertainers (FFEs) come to Japan?

9 FFEs are not long-term residents
Status of FFEs Visa Status → VISA for Entertainers How long? → Maximum: for 6months (3months)  Profession → Dnacers or Singers Work Place → Philippine Pubs (Snacks, Clubs) FFEs are not long-term residents

10 Systematized migration of FFEs
Immigration Office P O E A exam CERTIFICATE OF ELIGIBILITY procedure ARB Philippine Pub Entertainers dispatch Production Go promotion recruiters Filipino women This figure shows the migration system of FFEs. If you are Filipino women and want to be an entertainer in Japan, first, you should have a contract with a promotion company with training center for entertainers in the Phil. This promotion takes a variety of procedures and POEA gives exams to women. When they pass the exam, they get ARB and are permitted as entertainers. And then, they go to Japan. They will be employed by a production company in Japan and dispatched to a certain Philippine Pub. They will work there as entertainers for 6 months. 6 months later, they will be back to the Phil. They usually repeat this cycle 5 or 6 times. contract Back

11 What’s the Philippine Pub like?
By the way・・・ What’s the Philippine Pub like?

12 Hostess activity This is the picture within a Pub. They’re entertainers and this is Hostess Activity. This is one of their basic work.

13 Maybe there are two or three dance time one night.

14 Food and Drink Menu List
If their customer order a food or drink, they can get cash back at 10% of that price. Food and Drink Menu List

15 Karaoke with customers
When a customer do the Karaoke, a entertainer have to be side by side with him. Sometimes hold his hand, clap their hand. This is one of their work. Karaoke with customers

16 Karaoke’s practice Book for FFEs

17 Do-han (= Date out of a Pub)
This picture is Do-han activity. Do-han means the date out of Pubs.

18 When they are back to the Phil, Pub staffs and their customers take a goodbye party.



21 Who is this ?

22 Where are the Philippine
Question 3 Where are the Philippine Pubs in Japan? -My study area- Japan has two most famous cities of Philippine Pubs. One is Tokyo, the other is Nagoya City. I will show you around my study area, SAKAE Walk Streets in Nagoya City in Japan.

23 Nagoya City AICHI Pre.

24 SAKAE Area SAKAE NAGOYA CITY SAKAE Walk Streets City Hall
NISHIKI 3 Chome NAGOYA CITY In SAKAE area, there are three famous night spots, NISHIKI 3 chome, Sakae 3 chome, and SAKAE Walk Streets. NISHIKI is No. 1 and SAKAE 3 is No. 2. And SAKAE Walk Streets is No. 3. SWS is a little bit inner city of SAKAE SAKAE 3 Chome SAKAE Walk Streets SAKAE Area

25 SAKAE Walk Streets TOKYU Hotel IKEDA Park SAKAE Walk Streets
NISHIKI 3 Chome SAKAE 3 Chome TOKYU Hotel SAKAE Walk Streets North side of SWS is the spaces of Philippine pubs, especially between TOKYU Hotel and IKEDA Park. A dot is one Philippine pub. IKEDA Park SAKAE Walk Streets

26 ‘Little Manila’ October 25, 2004 CHUNICHI SHINBUN
This is a local newspaper, CHUNICHI Shinbun. It says that here is like a little Manila today.

27 IKEDA Park

28 South side of IKEDA Park

29 West side of IKEDA Park

30 North side of IKEDA Park

31 Main street of Philippine Pubs

32 Main street of Philippine Pubs

33 Three Electric Advertisement Boards
TOKYU Hotel 3 1 2 IKEDA Park

34 Advertisement Board①

35 Advertisement Board②

36 Advertisement Board③

37 I will pick up some boards
I will pick up some boards. Southern countries atmosphere, Exotic and Erotic…

38 What does Japanese society expect of FFEs ?
Analyzing some Web sites  ①Emotional – bright, cheerful, joyful, open  ②Hospitality – gentle, kind, tender  ③Purity – naive, innocent  ④Something which Japanese women have    already lost or are now losing    → Discourse of ‘‘YAMATO NADESHIKO’’ Through analyzing some Web sites, I can find some aspects of Pub customers’ gaze at FFEs.

39 Some conclusions What makes Japanese society need FFEs ?
Socio-economic differences ? Cultural differences ? Japanized Orientalism ? (Post-) Colonialism ? New racism ? Why do FFEs come to Japan ? And Why were Spaces of Philippine Pubs formed in Japanese Urban nightscapes?

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