A case study of Nagoya city, Japan ABE, Ryogo（阿部 亮吾）
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1 International migration and Filipino female entertainers coming to Japan: A case study of Nagoya city, JapanABE, Ryogo（阿部 亮吾）PD, Department of Geography,Nagoya University, Japan（名古屋大学大学院，地理学教室，PD研究員）
2 Today’s Presentation Globalization and ‘‘the age of migration’’ International migration and Filipino migrantsSituations of Filipino female entertainers coming to JapanAppearance of Spaces of Philippines Pubs concentrating at SAKAE Walk Streets in Nagoya City, JapanSome conclusionsContents of today’s presentation
3 Globalizing World since 1970s ‘‘The Age of migration’’（Castles & Miller, 1993: The Age of Migration. Macmillan Press. )①Globalisation of migration ②Acceleration of － ③Differentiation of － ④Feminization of －→ The Philippines is a symbolic state.Under the globalizing world since 1970s, Castles & Miller 1993 called the turn of the century as the age of migration.They picked up 4 dimensions of the age of migration. 1st…2nd…3rd…4th…The Phil should be situated as a symbolic and important state in this specific age.
4 Republic of the Philippines: Male;Middle Eastern- Construction workersInternational migration out of the PhilippinesRepublic of the Philippines:30 million people,in 180 countries and areasall over the world600 thousandsby one yearFemale;Middle EasternAsian NIEsWestern countries- Domestic workers- NursesThe Republic of the Phil is now a superpower of the migration age. It has about 30 million overseas people in 180 countries and areas all over the world.Also today, It’s newly sending out 600 thousands each year. Then, There are different migration patterns by male or female.Filipino Male migrants go to Middle eastern countries as construction workers. On the other hand, female go to Middle Eastern countries, Asian NIEs,And Western Countries as domestic workers and nurses.
5 International migration out of the Philippines But, Thinking the relationship between the Phil and Japan, we should find another dimension. It’s entertainers that come to Japan.Because of the Japanese immigration law, instead of construction workers, domestic workers and nurses, Filipino migrants cameto Japan as entertainers. In addition, most of Filipino entertainers are women.This is an unique and prominent phenomenon which Japanese society holds. That’s my study theme. Today, I would like to explore the cause ofthis phenomenon on the Japanese side.○Entertainers×Domestic workers
6 Question 1How many entertainerscome to Japan from thePhilippines?
7 The Number of Entertainers newly coming to Japan 82,000人This table shows the number of entertainers newly coming to Japan each year. Black line is the total number of entertainers from all over the world.Blue line is the number from all Asian areas. Red line is from the Phil. Look at the red line. The half of the total number is from the Phil. You know.Here is the top. After 2004, the number of entertainer has quickly decreased because of the reform of Japanese immigration law. Today, no onecan enter Japan as entertainers.8,500人53,000人36,000人
8 How do Filipino Female Entertainers (FFEs) come Question 2How do Filipino Female Entertainers (FFEs) cometo Japan?
9 FFEs are not long-term residents Status of FFEsVisa Status → VISA for EntertainersHow long? → Maximum: for 6months (3months) Profession → Dnacers or SingersWork Place → Philippine Pubs (Snacks, Clubs)FFEs are not long-term residents
10 Systematized migration of FFEs Immigration OfficeP O E AexamCERTIFICATE OF ELIGIBILITYprocedureARBPhilippine PubEntertainersdispatchProductionGopromotionrecruitersFilipino womenThis figure shows the migration system of FFEs. If you are Filipino women and want to be an entertainer in Japan, first, you should havea contract with a promotion company with training center for entertainers in the Phil. This promotion takes a variety of procedures andPOEA gives exams to women. When they pass the exam, they get ARB and are permitted as entertainers. And then, they go to Japan.They will be employed by a production company in Japan and dispatched to a certain Philippine Pub. They will work there as entertainersfor 6 months. 6 months later, they will be back to the Phil. They usually repeat this cycle 5 or 6 times.contractBack
11 What’s the Philippine Pub like? By the way・・・What’s the PhilippinePub like?
12 Hostess activityThis is the picture within a Pub. They’re entertainers and this is Hostess Activity. This is one of their basic work.
13 Maybe there are two or three dance time one night.
14 Food and Drink Menu List If their customer order a food or drink, they can get cash back at 10% of that price.Food and Drink Menu List
15 Karaoke with customers When a customer do the Karaoke, a entertainer have to be side by side with him. Sometimes hold his hand, clap their hand. This is one of their work.Karaoke with customers
22 Where are the Philippine Question 3Where are the PhilippinePubs in Japan?－My study area－Japan has two most famous cities of Philippine Pubs. One is Tokyo, the other is Nagoya City. I will show you around my study area, SAKAE Walk Streetsin Nagoya City in Japan.
24 SAKAE Area SAKAE NAGOYA CITY SAKAE Walk Streets City Hall NISHIKI 3 ChomeNAGOYA CITYIn SAKAE area, there are three famous night spots, NISHIKI 3 chome, Sakae 3 chome, and SAKAE Walk Streets. NISHIKI is No. 1 and SAKAE 3 is No. 2.And SAKAE Walk Streets is No. 3. SWS is a little bit inner city of SAKAESAKAE 3 ChomeSAKAE Walk StreetsSAKAE Area
25 SAKAE Walk Streets TOKYU Hotel IKEDA Park SAKAE Walk Streets NISHIKI 3 ChomeSAKAE 3 ChomeTOKYU HotelSAKAE Walk StreetsNorth side of SWS is the spaces of Philippine pubs, especially between TOKYU Hotel and IKEDA Park.A dot is one Philippine pub.IKEDA ParkSAKAE Walk Streets
26 ‘Little Manila’ October 25, 2004 CHUNICHI SHINBUN This is a local newspaper, CHUNICHI Shinbun. It says that here is like a little Manila today.
37 I will pick up some boards I will pick up some boards. Southern countries atmosphere, Exotic and Erotic…
38 What does Japanese society expect of FFEs ? Analyzing some Web sites ①Emotional – bright, cheerful, joyful, open ②Hospitality – gentle, kind, tender ③Purity – naive, innocent ④Something which Japanese women have already lost or are now losing → Discourse of ‘‘YAMATO NADESHIKO’’Through analyzing some Web sites, I can find some aspects of Pub customers’ gaze at FFEs.
39 Some conclusions What makes Japanese society need FFEs ? Socio-economic differences ?Cultural differences ?Japanized Orientalism ?(Post-) Colonialism ?New racism ?Why do FFEs come to Japan ? And Why were Spaces of Philippine Pubs formed in Japanese Urban nightscapes?