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Chapter 12: The Symphony The Slow Movement
Key Terms Slow movement Classical variation form Theme and variations
Slow Movement Typical Features Slow tempo
No standard form: may use sonata, variation, rondo, or other form Often lyrical and songlike in character Haydn’s Symphony No. 95 uses Classical theme and variations form
Theme and Variations Theme Variations
A complete tune in several phrases Variations The variations present a series of contrasting moods Each one varies the theme in a different way Each one usually follows the same phrase structure as the theme
Theme and Variations Standard theme & variations form
Any number of variations are possible
Baroque vs. Classical Vivaldi ground bass theme Haydn symphony theme
Short, one phrase In bass voice Polyphonic texture One cadence at end Continuous motion into next variation Haydn symphony theme A tune in 4 phrases In top voice Homophonic Several cadences Full stop before next variation
Haydn, Symphony No. 95, II (1) Theme (aabb)
Melody a simple tune with regular phrases Articulation mostly legato Major mode, stable harmonies Simple rhythms emphasize beat String colors, 1st violins on melody Middle to low register Accompaniment simple, staccato chords
Haydn, Symphony No. 95, II (2)
Haydn, Symphony No. 95, II (3) Variation 1 (a1a1’b1b1)
Melody ornamented when a and b repeat Articulation of ornaments more staccato Rhythm of ornaments feels faster Solo cello, pizzicato accompaniment Register lower when cello plays, lower and higher in violin decorations New countermelody above cello melody
Haydn, Symphony No. 95, II (4) Variations 2 (a2b2b2’) and 3 (a3a3’b3)
What was changed in these variations? Melody? Articulation? Form? Mode? Harmony? Rhythm? Meter? Tempo? Dynamics? Tone color? Register? Texture? Accompaniment? Theme Variation Variation 3
Haydn, Symphony No. 95, II (5) Theme Variation 2 Variation 3
Haydn, Symphony No. 95, II (5) Coda (a4?)
Is this a new variation or a coda? How is this coda unusual? Describe Haydn’s joke.
Haydn, Symphony No. 95, II (6) More sophisticated than many theme & variation works Haydn writes variations within variations
Review Classical Theme and Variations
A sectional form with clear cadences and distinct sections Relies on variation principle: simultaneous repetition and contrast Theme often a tune with clear phrases Typical formal scheme: A A1 A2 A3 A4 … Coda
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