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The Structures and Purposes of the Art Forms Music

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1 The Structures and Purposes of the Art Forms Music

2 Elements of Music • Melody—The main theme or part of a musical composition, the tune, or the organized progression of single tones/pitches. • Harmony—Two or more different notes played or sung simultaneously. • Rhythm—A combination of long and short pulses and rests in music. • Tempo—Speed of the beat or pulse. • Dynamics—Degrees of loudness and softness. • Timbre/Tone Color—The quality of sound as determined by the instruments or voices that are performing the music. • Form—The structure of a musical composition, how it is organized, the way a composition is put together.

3 Every Good Boy Does Fine.
FACE The treble clef generally is used for higher-pitched instruments and voices, such as the violin, flute, trumpet, and female voices (sopranos and altos). The lower part of the clef curves around line 2 of the staff , which is G, or the G above middle C. This is why the treble clef is also known as the G clef. Good Boys Don’t Fight Anyone. All Cows Eat Grass. The bass clef generally is used for lower-pitched instruments and voices, such as string bass, tuba, bassoon, and male voices (tenor and bass). The upper part of the clef sign curves around line 4 of the staff , which is F, or the F below middle C. This is why the bass clef is alsoknown as the F clef.

4 Harmony Harmony is two or more different notes played or sung at the same time. A chord, which is a combination of three or more notes played simultaneously, is an example of harmony. Another aspect of harmony is texture, or the thickness of sound. The three textures are monophonic, homophonic, and polyphonic. Monophonic- (one sound) music is performed in unison; everyone sings or plays the same notes at the same time. Homophonic- (same sound) music has multiple or different parts being sung or played simultaneously. An example of homophonic music can be found in a church hymn, where harmony is used but all singers have the same words at the same time. Polyphonic- (many sounds) music has multiple, independent parts that are sung or played simultaneously. All parts are of equal importance. Examples of polyphonic music are rounds (canon), madrigals and motets of the Renaissance period, and fugues of the Baroque period.

5 Rhythm Rhythm is defined as patterns of sounds and silences that make music move through time. In order to read music, a person needs to understand both rhythmic and pitch notation.

6 Tempo Tempo- is the speed of the beat in music. Traditional tempo markings are indicated using Italian terms. These are the most familiar tempo markings: • Allegro—Fast • Moderato—Moderate • Adagio—Slow • Largo—Very slow

7 Dynamics Dynamics are degrees of loudness or softness (volume) and the intensity of sound. Dynamics are designated by a set of symbols based on two Italian words, forte (strong or loud) and piano (soft). The chart below shows the most common dynamic markings. pp pianissimo very soft p piano soft mp mezzo piano moderately soft mf mezzo forte moderately loud f forte loud ff fortissimo very loud

8 Timbre/Tone Color The timbre or tone color is the distinctive sound of each instrument or voice. Certain instruments or families of instruments have sound qualities that best create certain moods, feelings, and emotions.

9 Form Form in music refers to the structure or design of a musical composition. When determining the form of a musical composition, we look at the organization of verses, movements, and sections and compare what is alike and what is different.

10 Rondo form has a main theme (A), which returns throughout the work.
Theme and variation is a compositional form where a basic musical idea is repeated over and over but is changed each time the musical idea is repeated. With call and response, a leader or lead group sings or plays a phrase; then others (audience) sing or play the phrase back.

11 Round (canon)—A simple melody performed by a different singer or group of singers starting at different times. An example is “Row, Row, Row Your Boat.” Verse and chorus (verse and refrain)—Verses with the same melody but different words, ending with a refrain or chorus each time that has the same melody and words.

12 Overture—This is the music played by the orchestra before the curtain opens for the first act. It usually contains a medley of all of the important themes sung during the production. Aria—An aria is the song sung by a principal character in the opera. It is the main vehicle for the character to express emotions. Recitative—This is the sung dialogue between the performers that moves the plot along. It does not contain the variation of pitch and movement of the melody line that is present in the arias. It is like sung speech.

13 Opera- is a combination of music and theatre
Opera- is a combination of music and theatre. Sometimes it is called the complete art form since it involves a story sung on stage with sets, costumes, lights, and an orchestra

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