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Published byJonah Burns Modified over 7 years ago
Classical Music Higher
Quick Quiz 1) Between which dates (roughly) did the Classical Period occur? 2) Name 3 famous Classical composers: 3) Name 2 instruments found in Classical Music which did not exist during the time of Baroque Music: 4) Which Baroque instrument was no longer used in the Classical Period? 5) These Baroque musical styles were also found in the Classical period, true or false? OPERAORATORIOCONCERTO
One of the most important developments in the Classical period was the SYMPHONY. This is a piece for full orchestra, with no soloists.
Like a concerto, the symphony is divided into sections, or ‘movements’. Each movement would have it’s own style and tempo. Mvt.1Mvt.2Mvt. 3Mvt. 4
The 1 st movement was usually fast and lively, in sonata form Allegro The 2 nd movement was slower and more ‘lyrical’ Andante The 3 rd movement was often a Minuet (a type of dance with 3 beats in a bar) or a scherzo Minuet The final movement was sometimes a rondo. Rondo
Sonatas From the Italian word ‘sonare’ – to sound. A work in several movements for one or two instruments only. Usually a piece for piano solo, or piano with another instrument (e.g. violin & piano; flute & piano) Do not confuse with a concerto. In a sonata, both instruments are equally important.
More Classical Concepts… Scherzo: This is an Italian word, literally meaning ‘joke’. It is used to describe a very fast and lively movement of a symphony. Cadenza: A section in a concerto where the orchestra stops playing, and the soloist gets to really show off with some very difficult and flashy playing!
Alberti Bass: A style of accompaniment (usually played on piano), based on notes of a chord. The pattern of notes is bottom note, top note, middle note, top note. C,E,G Chord of C Chord of G G,B,D
Trill: A type of ornament. Two notes next to each other are played one after the other, very fast. Acciaccatura: An extra decorative note, which is very short, played just before the main melody note. Sounds like… Ornamentation
Appoggiatura: A ‘leaning note’. It looks like an acciaccatura, but is much longer and holds back the arrival of the main note. Sounds like … Mordent: 3 notes played very quickly (the main note, the note above, and the main note again. Sounds like…
Turn: Consists of 4 notes (the note above, main note, note below and main note). Sounds like …
Vocal Music You need to remember the following concepts: OPERAORATORIO ARIA RECITATIVEMASSMOTET The most important new concepts you need to know are Lied and Song Cycle
A Lied is a German song, with piano, which tells a story (plural is ‘Lieder’). Franz Schubert was the most famous composer of Lieder from the Classical period. The piano part is of equal importance to the voice. Often, the piano part tried to illustrate some aspect of the words (word-painting) e.g. ‘Gretchen am Spinnrade’ – the piano part represents the constant turning of the spinning wheel.
A song-cycle is a group of lieder linked by a common theme. E.g. ‘Wintereisse’ by Schubert
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