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# Department of EECS University of California, Berkeley EECS 105 Fall 2003, Lecture 21 Lecture 21: Voltage/Current Buffer Freq Response Prof. Niknejad.

## Presentation on theme: "Department of EECS University of California, Berkeley EECS 105 Fall 2003, Lecture 21 Lecture 21: Voltage/Current Buffer Freq Response Prof. Niknejad."— Presentation transcript:

Department of EECS University of California, Berkeley EECS 105 Fall 2003, Lecture 21 Lecture 21: Voltage/Current Buffer Freq Response Prof. Niknejad

EECS 105 Fall 2003, Lecture 21Prof. A. Niknejad Department of EECS University of California, Berkeley Lecture Outline Last Time: Frequency Response of Voltage Buffer Frequency Response of Current Buffer Current Mirrors Biasing Schemes Detailed Example

EECS 105 Fall 2003, Lecture 21Prof. A. Niknejad Department of EECS University of California, Berkeley Common-Collector Amplifier Procedure: 1.Small-signal two- port model 2.Add device (and other) capacitors

EECS 105 Fall 2003, Lecture 21Prof. A. Niknejad Department of EECS University of California, Berkeley Two-Port CC Model with Capacitors Find Miller capacitor for C  -- note that the base-emitter capacitor is between the input and output Gain ~ 1

EECS 105 Fall 2003, Lecture 21Prof. A. Niknejad Department of EECS University of California, Berkeley Voltage Gain A vC  Across C  Note: this voltage gain is neither the two-port gain nor the “loaded” voltage gain

EECS 105 Fall 2003, Lecture 21Prof. A. Niknejad Department of EECS University of California, Berkeley Bandwidth of CC Amplifier Input low-pass filter’s –3 dB frequency: Substitute favorable values of R S, R L : Model not valid at these high frequencies

EECS 105 Fall 2003, Lecture 21Prof. A. Niknejad Department of EECS University of California, Berkeley CB Current Buffer Bandwidth Same procedure: start with two-port model and capacitors

EECS 105 Fall 2003, Lecture 21Prof. A. Niknejad Department of EECS University of California, Berkeley Two-Port CB Model with Capacitors No Miller-transformed capacitor! Unity-gain frequency is on the order of  T for small R L

EECS 105 Fall 2003, Lecture 21Prof. A. Niknejad Department of EECS University of California, Berkeley Summ of Single-Stage Amp Freq Resp CE, CS: suffer from Miller-magnified capacitor for high-gain case CC, CD: Miller transformation  nulled capacitor  “wideband stage” CB, CG: no Millerized capacitor  wideband stage (for low load resistance)

EECS 105 Fall 2003, Lecture 21Prof. A. Niknejad Department of EECS University of California, Berkeley CMOS Diode Connected Transistor Short gate/drain of a transistor and pass current through it Since VGS = VDS, the device is in saturation since VDS > VGS-VT Since FET is a square-law (or weaker) device, the I-V curve is very soft compared to PN junction diode What’s the input impedance of circuit?

EECS 105 Fall 2003, Lecture 21Prof. A. Niknejad Department of EECS University of California, Berkeley Diode Equivalent Circuit Equivalent Circuit:

EECS 105 Fall 2003, Lecture 21Prof. A. Niknejad Department of EECS University of California, Berkeley The Integrated “Current Mirror” M 1 and M 2 have the same V GS If we neglect CLM (λ=0), then the drain currents are equal Since λ is small, the currents will nearly mirror one another even if V out is not equal to V GS1 We say that the current I REF is mirrored into i OUT Notice that the mirror works for small and large signals! High Res Low Resis

EECS 105 Fall 2003, Lecture 21Prof. A. Niknejad Department of EECS University of California, Berkeley Current Mirror as Current Source The output current of M 2 is only weakly dependent on v OUT due to high output resistance of FET M2 acts like a current source to the rest of the circuit

EECS 105 Fall 2003, Lecture 21Prof. A. Niknejad Department of EECS University of California, Berkeley Small-Signal Resistance of I-Source

EECS 105 Fall 2003, Lecture 21Prof. A. Niknejad Department of EECS University of California, Berkeley Improved Current Sources Goal: increase r oc Approach: look at amplifier output resistance results … to see topologies that boost resistance Looks like the output impedance of a common- source amplifier with source degeneration

EECS 105 Fall 2003, Lecture 21Prof. A. Niknejad Department of EECS University of California, Berkeley Effect of Source Degeneration Equivalent resistance loading gate is dominated by the diode resistance … assume this is a small impedance Output impedance is boosted by factor

EECS 105 Fall 2003, Lecture 21Prof. A. Niknejad Department of EECS University of California, Berkeley Cascode (or Stacked) Current Source Insight: V GS2 = constant AND V DS2 = constant Small-Signal Resistance r oc :

EECS 105 Fall 2003, Lecture 21Prof. A. Niknejad Department of EECS University of California, Berkeley Drawback of Cascode I-Source Minimum output voltage to keep both transistors in saturation:

EECS 105 Fall 2003, Lecture 21Prof. A. Niknejad Department of EECS University of California, Berkeley Current Sinks and Sources Sink: output current goes to ground Source: output current comes from voltage supply

EECS 105 Fall 2003, Lecture 21Prof. A. Niknejad Department of EECS University of California, Berkeley Current Mirrors Idea: we only need one reference current to set up all the currentsources and sinks needed for a multistage amplifier.

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