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Phonology & Phonotactics

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Presentation on theme: "Phonology & Phonotactics"— Presentation transcript:

1 Phonology & Phonotactics
Co-Articulation Effects

2 Phoneme = meaning distinguishing sounds in a language (the sounds we hear in our minds)
Allophone = different versions of the same phoneme (sounds we make with our mouths) Ex: /spæt/ vs. / phæt/ Broad transcriptions use the main phoneme for all allophonic variations that do not affect meaning Some Terms

3 Phonotactic Constraints
Sounds are not uttered in isolation from one another, and each language has its own “phonotactic constraints”: sounds or syllables which can or cannot be made. Ex: /nd/ can be a consonant blend at the end of a syllable in English, but not at the beginning of a syllable in English. Ex: regular verbs which end in a voiceless consonant form the simple past with a /t/ as /wɔlkt/ walked Regular verbs which end in a voiced sound other than /t/ or /d/ form the simple past with /d/ as /slɪmd/ slimmed Regular verbs which end in /t/ or /d/ form the simple past with /əd/ as in /plɑdəd/ plodded or /plɑɾəd/ Phonotactic Constraints

4 Similar Phonotactic Constraints
Nouns form regular plurals under similar constraints Nouns that end in a voiceless consonant such as /p/ form plurals with voiceless /s/ For example: caps /kæps/ Nouns that end with voiced sounds (not stridents) such as /w/ form plurals with voiced /z/ For example: bows and arrows /bowz/ /æɹowz/ Nouns that end with stridents: /s/ /z/ /ʃ/ /ʒ/ /ʧ/ /ʤ/ form plurals in /əz/ For example: churches /ʧʌɹʧəz/ Similar Phonotactic Constraints

5 Co-articulation effects
Assimilation occurs when two sound segments are spoken in sequence and one copies or affects the other. Ex: voiceless labiodental in wolf becomes voiced in the plural b/c of the preceding liquid and vowel and is wolves Ex: every vowel in English pronounced before a nasal becomes nasalized (mark with tilda ˜) contrast back /bæk/and bank /bǣŋk/ Note also that nasals in front of velar stops /k/ and /g/ become assimilated and become velar nasals Ring is /ɹIŋ/ -- and the I would be marked with a ˜ Co-articulation effects

6 Other voicing assimilations
Liquids /l/ and /ɹ/ that followed voiceless stops /p/ /t/ and /k/ are normally de- voiced. plot or pray or train or clean or creed and contrasted to blot or bray or drain or glean or greed /pl̥ɑt/ vs. /blɑt/ and /kɹ̥id/ vs /gɹid/ Other voicing assimilations

7 Some sounds are affected by nearby sounds, and move to a closer position in the mouth to assimilate to those sounds. Ex: the prefix “in” that negates becomes “im” in front of a bilabial: impossible or immmaterial And remains as “in” in front of dental and alveolar and palatal consonants: invalid or infallible or intolerable or indubitably or insolvable or innocent or injurious For some speakers “in” will sound /Iŋ/ in front of a velar stop ingrate or incoherent Place assimilation

8 Flapping as assimilation
Flapping – medial /t/ or /d/ is changed to /ɾ/ in casual speech and two different assimilations may take place (1) type of articulation assimilation. A flap always changes a noncontinuent (a stop) into a continuent (flaps are continuents) when that stop is surrounded by two vowels (also continuents) (2) voicing assimilation. A flap always occurs between two vowels – vowels are voiced – and the unvoiced stop /t/ becomes the voiced /ɾ/ Flapping as assimilation

9 Elision occurs when a sound is omitted in casual speech
Ex: suppose as /spowz/ Ex: parade as /pɹ̥ejd/ Note also that the voiceless stop /p/ has devoiced the liquid /ɹ/ to /ɹ̥/ Dissimilation can rarely occur when sounds are deleted b/c there are too many similar sounds in a row Ex: three fifths in careful speech /Ɵɹi fIfƟs/ becomes /Ɵɹi fIfts/ Deletion or elision

10 Epenthesis and Metathesis
In epenthesis, a sound is inserted that makes it easier to transition between two dissimilar sounds. Ex: sonorant nasal to nonsonorant fricative has insertion of nonsonorant stop articulated in the same place warmth with /p/ inserted between /m/ and /Ɵ/ (same place in mouth as /m/ and same voicelessness and nonsonorantness as / /Ɵ/ prince with /t/ inserted between /n/ and /s/ In metathesis, sound elements are re- ordered Ex: a child who cannot say “spaghetti” re-orders the sounds to /pIskεti/ Epenthesis and Metathesis

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