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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 2 Wealth and Poverty: U.S. and Global Economic Inequalities This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The “American Dream” Each generation can have a higher standard of living Regardless of race, national origin, sexual orientation, religion, etc. Class system System of inequality based on ownership and control over resources and the type of work Social mobility
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Wealth and Poverty Globally High-income nations: Highly industrialized (e.g., U.S., Australia) Middle-income nations: Transforming from agrarian to industrial (e.g., Panama, Romania) Low-income nations: Primarily agrarian (e.g., sub- Saharan Africa, Afghanistan) The most rapid population growth is occurring primarily in low- income nations that can least afford to take care of greater numbers of people. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2004c.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Social Stratification Hierarchy of social groups Based on control over basic resources Widens gap between rich and poor Individually and nationally Reduces life chances for poor
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Figure 2.2: Median U.S. Household Income by Race and Hispanic Origin, 1990-2002 (Median Income in 2002 Dollars) Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2004c.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Karl Marx (1818-1883) Capitalism Bourgeoisie Owners of the means of production Proletariat Workers of the means of production Exploitation of workers by capitalists leads to inequality and poverty
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Max Weber (1864-1920) Multidimensional model Wealth Value of all economic assets Power Achieve goals despite opposition Prestige Respect and esteem from others
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Recent Theory of Class Structure: Erik O. Wright (1997) Four classes in US Capitalist economy: Ownership of means of production Capitalist Purchase of labor of others Managerial class Supervision of labor of others Small-business class Sale of one’s own labor Working class
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Poverty in the US Poverty line Established in 1965 by Social Security Admin. Contains minimum level of nutrition Low cost food budget (“market basket”) Multiplied by three (non-food costs) Adjusted for size of family Out-dated standards
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Who are the Poor? Age: 40% of the poor are children under 18 Fastest growing segment of children who are poor come from working poor households Gender & Household Composition: Two-thirds of all adults living in poverty are women Feminization of Poverty Figure 2.4: People Below the Poverty Level, 2003, by Race Note: Data on Native Americans are based on 2001-2003 average. Source: DeNavas-Walt, Proctor, and Mills, 2004.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Consequences of Poverty Reduced access to health care and nutrition Lack of affordable housing Inadequate education
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Social Welfare in the U.S. Welfare State (New Deal, 1930s) Government takes responsibility of people who need help Employment, housing, health, education, and income Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 “War on Poverty” Head Start, Job Corps, Manpower Development Welfare Reform (1996) Time-limited assistance for work
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Individual Explanations for Poverty Blaming the victim Attitudinal problems Lack of motivation Lack of Human Capital Personal assets, like education and skills, that people bring with them to the labor market
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Cultural Explanations for Poverty Blames cultural deficiency Culture of poverty (Oscar Lewis, 1966) Inability to delay gratification Hostility Deficient communication patterns Lack of Cultural Capital Cultural assets acquired from the family, like values, language, and beliefs, that are necessary for social advancement
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Structural Explanations for Poverty Focus on macro level changes Economical changes and industrialization Wage squeeze & high rates of underemployment & unemployment Taking home less money Corporate quest for profits Technologies take place of workers
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Solutions for Poverty Individual solutions: People should work harder Cultural solutions: Enhancing people’s cultural capital Structural solutions: Job and training programs, providing child care, providing healthcare, affordable housing
Social Class in the United States
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Age and Social Inequality Chapter 9 Age and Social Inequality This multimedia product and.
Social Class in the United States Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of Sociology Essentials of Sociology 9 th Edition.
Social Class and Social Stratification
Chapter 14: The Economy Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach 7/e James M. Henslin Chapter Fourteen: The Economy James M.
This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Wealth and Poverty: U.S. and Global Economic Inequalities This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 1 Studying Social Problems in the Twenty-First Century This multimedia product and its contents are protected under.
A Down-to-Earth Approach 8/e
Gender Stratification: the ranking of the sexes in such a way that women are unequal in power, resources, and opportunities.
Theories of Inequality Marxist Social Conflict Perspective View of Society Causes of Inequality Plan for Action Problems with Marx Useful Insights.
Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach 7/e James M. Henslin Chapter One: The Sociological.
Lesson 5: Social Class and Inequality
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Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach 7/e
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