Preparing to Persuade: Reasoning and Logic. Aristotle’s “Proofs” “logos” to describe logical evidence “ethos” to describe speaker credibility “pathos”
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Aristotle’s “Proofs” “logos” to describe logical evidence “ethos” to describe speaker credibility “pathos” to refer to emotion.
Types of Reasoning: Inductive Reasoning Draw specific inferences from broad facts. Use inductive reasoning to explain why a current suggestion would or would not work, based on past experiences.
Types of Reasoning: Inductive Reasoning Any research supporting assertions should have clear credibility. Examples should be clearly representative of the claim. Evidence should directly support the claim. Assertions should not be trite or made hastily.
Types of Reasoning: Deductive Reasoning Works opposite from inductive reasoning in that we use broad facts to make specific assertions. Starts with a major premise, which is generally accepted knowledge. Major premise leads to a more specific assertion— the minor premise. Finally, a conclusion is drawn between the two.
Types of Reasoning: Deductive Reasoning The major premise must have viability. If it is questionable, a fallacy could be created. The minor premises should share a relationship with major premises. If the major premise is questionable, further credible support will be required.
Types of Reasoning: Causal Reasoning Causal reasoning relies on a cause- effect relationship. Some causal relationships are commonly accepted... : Example: If I exercise regularly, I will lose weight.... while others stir controversy: Example: Playing violent videogames promotes violence in children.
Types of Reasoning: Causal Reasoning Simplistic answers should be avoided. Just because one event occurs does not necessarily mean that a relationship between the two can be established. If the cause-effect relationship seems unlikely or is commonly protested, numerous credible sources will be needed to gain consideration. Most effects can have several causes. For example, in the example about losing weight, a person may have exercised, consumed fewer calories, and limited carbohydrate intake—all factors in weight reduction.
Types of Reasoning: Analogical Reasoning Analogical reasoning involves the assumption that because two things contain commonalities or are interrelated, they share a likeness or a similar result. Example: “Because my mother had breast cancer, I’d better get checked for it, too. “Since Ford Explorer has faulty tires, your Ford Focus might have them, as well.”
Types of Reasoning: Analogical Reasoning In analogical reasoning: The main consideration in analogical reasoning is ensuring that both premises are similar to each other. One premise should not minimize the other.
Fallacies Ad hominem argument Post-hoc fallacy Non-sequitur fallacy Hasty generalizations Straw man fallacy The either-or fallacy The bandwagon The slippery slope The red herring