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Matakuliah : G1222, Writing IV Tahun : 2006 Versi : v 1.0 rev 1

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1 Matakuliah : G1222, Writing IV Tahun : 2006 Versi : v 1.0 rev 1
Module 4 Types of Essay

2 The Characteristics of the five essays
What’s inside The 5 types of essay The Characteristics of the five essays

3 Book Review and Article Critique Writing an Annotated Bibliography
Main types of essay Book Review and Article Critique Writing an Annotated Bibliography Literature Review Academic Proposal Abstract Lab Report Short Report Presentations Application Letters and Résumés

4 1) Analogy and Comparison
Analogy and comparative essays both use comparison, but they use it somewhat differently. Comparative essays simply compare similarities and differences, while analogy essays use analogy to clarify difficult topics. Analogy An analogy is a kind of comparison that attempts to illuminate a subject by comparing it to something else that is in many ways unlike the subject. For example, an analogy might explain the workings of the human brain and nervous system by comparing it to the electrical wiring of a car. Although a person and a car are very different, there are specific similarities that can help someone picture the way a human nervous system works by reference to the more familiar car electrical system. Comparison This kind of essay is also known as the compare-contrast essay. In a comparison essay, the object is to compare the similarities of otherwise different things, and/or to contrast the differences of otherwise similar things. Sometimes, you may be expected to look at the similarities and differences, though usually the similarities of similar things and the differences of different things are already obvious.

5 2) Analytical Essays An analytical or analysis essay is one that analyzes, that is, interprets or examines something. There are several different kinds of analytical essay including cause and effect, description, literary analysis, and process analysis. Cause and Effect A cause and effect essay examines or interprets the causes or effects of a situation. In this kind of essay, you may start from a known result or situation and examine what brought about that result. Description Some essays do nothing but describe. To describe something in an essay, it's a good idea to use some of the same techniques as you would use in creative writing. Make use of all five senses: how does a thing look, feel, taste, smell, and sound? Literary Analysis A literary analysis essay interprets literature (a poem, short story, play, etc). It may discuss the meaning of the work, or it may evaluate the use of particular literary techniques, style and so on. Generally, a literary analysis focuses on three aspects of literature: a writer, a specific literary work or works, or a literary element.

6 3) Argument and Opinion Argument essays and opinion essays can be very similar, in that they both present a position and offer reasons for holding that position. The difference is largely one of degree; an opinion can be supported, but not actually proven, while an argument is a more rigorous and logical construct that ideally can be objectively evaluated in comparison to other arguments In other words, opinions are personal, but arguments must be supported with good evidence. An argumentative, or persuasive essay is meant to convince the reader of something. You don't necessarily have to agree with the position you are arguing for, as long as you write your essay as if you agree. An opinion essay simply expresses the writer's opinion on a particular topic. A good opinion essay, though, not only states what the opinion is, but also why the writer holds that opinion, and shows that the writer has examined and evaluated other possibilities. This kind of essay can be used for sharing ideas, explaining the reasons for actions you've taken, or to try to convince the reader to change their mind.

7 4) Classification and Definition
When you need to write about what something is, you'll probably need to use classification and definition. Classification related something the other things that it is like or unlike, while definition attempts to say simply what the thing is. classification Classification essay clarifies relationships between things. Classification, essentially, divides things into categories based on their similarities and differences. This is especially important in science, but all topics can make use of classification. Definition Definitions can, of course, be useful in nearly any kind of writing. Definitions can also make an essay all on their own, depending on the topic and the purpose of defining it. For many terms that need defining, especially simple physical things, a sentence or a paragraph is often enough. For more abstract concepts, though, a whole essay may just be the beginning.

8 5) Narration Like description, narration offers opportunities for using the techniques of creative writing in an essay. By making your essay-writing more creative, you may enjoy it more--school work can be fun if you know how it make it fun. Narration A narration or narrative essay is an essay that tells a story. It is a good way to involve the reader, as reading a narrative essay is much like reading a short story (if it is done well). In a narrative essay, the message of the essay may not be apparent until the end, once the reader has already read it; thus it can be a powerful way of getting people to read about things they might avoid in another kind of essay.

9 Other Types of essay Argumentative essay:
An argumentative essay is built around a specific statement known as the thesis or conclusion that is debatable within the field in which you are studying. In other words, at the center of an argumentative essay is a statement with which your readers may disagree. Your essay will need to support that statement in a manner that convinces your readers of its truth. Debatable statements = Statements with which other people might or might not agree . These are sometimes called "arguments," "assertions," "propositions," "claims," or "conclusions.“ eg. Solar energy is the best way of meeting California's energy needs in the 21st century Non-debatable statements = Statements with which no-one would normally disagree or argue. These are sometimes called "facts“ .eg. Coal and oil are the main sources of energy in the United States in the 20th century

10 Interpretive Essay Interpretive Essay
Interpretation of a text is required when an author's words do not immediately make sense to us and we become puzzled about their meaning or implication. Such puzzlement rarely occurs in the course of everyday reading that is aimed at gaining information. We usually read advertisements, weather reports and descriptions of current events in an entirely straightforward or transparent way, in a search for facts and content. However dubious we may be occasionally about the truth of what we read, we are seldom dubious about the meaning of the text -- assuming, of course, that we understand the author's words. When we find the meaning of a text intelligible and unproblematic in this way, it is because we share with the author a common perspective or set of assumptions. By sharing this common perspective or set of assumptions, we are able meaningfully to take issue with the author's factual claims. Disagreement always presupposes and is made possible by extensive tacit agreement about matters that are not in question.

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