Why do we write essays? Hint: The answer is NOT ‘because sir/miss told me to’
Why do we write essays? Measurement Development Professionalism
Measurement??!!?? Implying that it is to: Assess your knowledge and understanding? Grade your achievements? Judge your writing skills? Measure you against your peers?
Measurement??!!?? Implying that it is to: Assess your knowledge and understanding? Grade your achievements? Judge your writing skills? Measure you against your peers? Of course, but it isn’t the main reason
Development Far more important is that you are given the opportunity: to explore what you think to improve how you think to practice communicating your thoughts
Development Writing is a tool which can allow us to: Organise our thoughts clearly give ourselves room to examine what we think why we think it whether we should continue to think it
Professionalism Sustained, coherent and complex thinking cannot be done silently. That is to say, most people cannot sit alone and think CLEARLY about something COMPLICATED for A LONG PERIOD of time
Professionalism But, what do you do when there is no-one you can talk to
Professionalism Planning an essay is like having that conversation with yourself Writing the essay is sharing those thoughts with other people
Professionalism Anybody can make a gut decision but only someone who is practiced in communicating and reasoned argument will be able to justify how the more difficult decision was made
So anyway, ….. ….what kind of essays are there.
There are generally considered to be three types of essay Descriptive Contrast/compare Argumentative
The descriptive essay In describe essays, you are merely asked to describe, something, be it an event, object, graph or table. Your OPINION is not required unless specifically asked for
1. The descriptive essay Description of object or place Describing a sequence of events. Describing a process Describing and explaining
Introduction major aspects of the subject. description of aspect A description of aspect B etc. Conclusion Plan – Object or place Questions are often introduced by: Describe.... Narrate... Tell....
Plan – Sequence of Events Questions are often introduced by: Give an account of..., Trace..., Examine developments in... Introduction First situation then A happened then B happened etc. Final situation Conclusion
Plan – A Process Questions are often introduced by: Explain/What is the connection between.... Describe the procedures by which... Definition of process Main equipment/Main steps Step One leads to Step Two leads to Step Three Conclusion Summary of process
Plan – Describing and explaining Questions often introduced by: Explain the causes/reasons.... Account for.... Analyse the causes.... Comment on (the reasons for).... Show that.... Show why... Examine the effect of.... Suggest reasons for.... Why did...? What are the implications of...? Discuss the causes of.... Discuss the reasons for....
Plan – Describing and explaining Introduction to causes of A Cause 1 + example Effects 1 Cause 2 with example Effects 2 etc. Conclusion Introduction to causes of A Causes + examples Transition Effects Conclusion OR
Compare and contrast essays Contrast or distinguish between questions usually present you with two or more terms, instruments, concepts or procedures that are closely connected, and sometimes confused. The purpose of the essay is to explain the differences between them.
2. Compare and contrast essays The contrast essay The compare essay The compare and contrast essays
Plan – Contrast Questions are often introduced by: Contrast.... Distinguish between... What is the difference between.... What are the differences between.... How are... and... different? Introduction to differences between A and B Contrast A & B in terms of first difference Contrast A & B in terms of second difference etc Conclusion
Plan – Compare Questions are often introduced by: Compare.... What features do... and... have in common? What are the similarities between.... How are... and... similar? Introduction to similarities between A and B Compare A & B in terms of first similarity Compare A & B in terms of second similarity etc. Conclusion
Plan – Compare/Contrast Questions are often introduced by: Compare.... What features do... and... have in common? What are the similarities between.... How are... and... similar?
Argumentative essays The purpose of an argumentative essay is to persuade the reader to follow your point of view. You do this by supporting your point with facts or relevant ideas.
The argument essay The balanced view The persuasive essay The to what extent essay.
The argument essay The balanced view If the essay title begins with something like: Give the arguments for and against.... Assess the importance of.... Examine the arguments for and against.... What are the advantages and disadvantages of...? Evaluate.... Then you will need a BALANCED essay
The argument essay The balanced view That is to say: Present BOTH sides of the argument in an unbiased fashion State your opinion in the conclusion, based on the evidence you have provided
The argument essay Plan – The balanced view Introduce the argument to the reader. e.g. why it is particularly relevant topic nowadays or refer directly to some comments that have been voiced on it recently. Reasons in favour of the argument Reasons against the argument After summarising the two sides, state your own opinion, and explain why you think as you do
The argument essay The persuasive essay If the essay title begins with something like: Give your views on.... What do you think about...? Do you agree that...? Consider whether.... Then you will need a PERSUASIVE essay
The argument essay The persuasive essay In which you state your opinion immediately try to convince the reader, by reasoned argument, that you are right
The argument essay Plan – The persuasive essay Introduce the topic briefly in general terms, and then state your own opinion. Explain what you plan to prove in the essay. Reasons against the argument. Dispose briefly of the main objections to your case. Reasons for your argument the arguments to support your own view, with evidence and examples. Conclusion - Do not repeat your opinion again. End your essay with something memorable e.g. a quotation or a direct question.
The argument essay The to what extent essay If the essay title begins with something like: To what extent.... How true.... How far do you agree.... Then you will need a TO WHAT EXTENT essay
The argument essay The to what extent essay Because the truth is never 100% so, how true is it?
The argument essay Plan – The to what extent essay Introduction to problem Aspect 1 - true Aspect 1 - false Aspect 2 - true etc Conclusion a ‘subtraction’ sum