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Chapter 13: RNA and Protein Synthesis

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13: RNA and Protein Synthesis"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13: RNA and Protein Synthesis

2 Chapter 13.1 (Pgs ): RNA

3 Protein Synthesis DNA Characteristics Protein

4 Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
A nucleic acid that consists of a long chain of nucleotides Helps put the genetic code into action Part of DNA base sequence turned into RNA Helps makes proteins

5 DNA vs RNA DNA RNA Has deoxyribose sugar
Has two strands (double-helix) Has C, G, A, and T bases Has ribose sugar Has one strand Has C, G, A and U (Uracil) bases

6 Protein made up of amino acids
Functions of RNA Main job: protein synthesis Controls assembly of amino acids into proteins Disposable copy of DNA segment DNA is the master plan and RNA is a copy of that plan Protein made up of amino acids

7 Three Types of RNA Messenger RNA (mRNA) Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Carries information from DNA in the nucleus to ribosomes in the cytoplasm Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Combines with protein to form ribosomes Transfer RNA (tRNA) Transfers amino acids to ribosomes to help build proteins

8 RNA Synthesis Also called Transcription
Segments of DNA serve as templates to produce complementary RNA molecules Occurs in the nucleus Requires the enzyme RNA polymerase Adds RNA nucleotides

9 Transcription Initiation Elongation Termination Editing
RNA Polymerase binds to DNA and separates DNA strands Elongation RNA Polymerase adds base pairs Uses one strand of DNA as a template Uracil (U) replaces T on RNA strand Termination RNA Polymerase stops adding nucleotides Forms one complementary strand of RNA Editing - RNA molecule is edited before used

10 Promoters Regions of DNA that have specific base sequences
Tells RNA Polymerase where to start/stop making RNA RNA binds to promoter and starts adding complementary bases

11 Editing the RNA Strand Completed RNA molecule needs to be modified before becoming a protein Called pre-mRNA Little pieces, called introns, are cut out of the mRNA strand and discarded Remaining pieces, called exons, are re-connected back together Protective cap and tail put on either end


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