2 1.What does RNA stand for?Ribonucleic acid (unlike DNA, which stands for…)
3 2. 3 major differences between DNA and RNA 1. Sugar in RNA is ribose not deoxyribose2. Single-stranded (vs. double-stranded)3. Contains the nitrogenous base uracil vs. thymine
4 3. Roles of DNA vs. RNA Kind of like a construction site DNA is the “master plan”Used to prepare the “blueprints” which is the RNADNA molecule stays safely in the cells nucleusRNA molecules go to proteins building sites in the cytoplasm called the ribosome
5 4.RNA controls the assembly of amino acids into proteins! Proteins direct/ control a lot of cellular functions…that’s one of the reasons RNA is so important!
6 Each of the 3 main types of RNA has a different job when it comes to protein synthesis: Messenger RNA (mRNA)Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)Transfer RNA (tRNA)
7 5. mRNARNA that carries instructions for polypeptide synthesis from nucleus to ribosomes in the cytoplasm!
8 5.rRNAForms an important part of both subunits of the ribosome
9 5.tRNACarries amino acids to the ribosome and then matches them to the coded mRNA message
10 How does the cell make RNA? RNA SynthesisHow does the cell make RNA?
11 Transcription1.Most of the work of making RNA takes place during transcription2. In transcription, segments of DNA serve as templates to produce complementary RNA molecules
12 Where does transcription happen? 3. ProkaryotesRNA synthesis+ protein synthesis in the cytoplasm4.EukaryotesRNA synthesis is in cell’s nucleusProtein synthesis is in cytoplasm
13 5.RNA polymerase Works much like DNA polymerase 6. RNA polymerase binds to DNA during transcription then separates the DNA strandsUses one strand of DNA as a template from which to assemble nucleotides into a complementary strand of RNA
14 7. How does RNA know where to bind and start making RNA??? 8.Promoter region of DNA that signals RNA polymerase exactly where to begin making RNA*Similar signals in DNA cause transcription to stop when a new RNA molecule is completed
15 9-10 RNA editing RNA needs to be edited before it can be read! Introns= portions that are cut out and discardedExons= left over portions that are then pushed back together to form the final mRNA strand