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(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Chapter Eight Teaching Students with Mental Retardation This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Basic Concepts About Mental Retardation Mental retardation is a term used to describe a level of functioning significantly below what is considered “average.” Mental retardation is a generic term that represents a very diverse group of individuals.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 How Many Students Are Identified as Mentally Retarded? The U.S. Department of Education (2001) indicates that 1.15% of the school-age population is identified as mentally retarded. There is substantial variation in prevalence rates of students with mental retardation: Highest Prevalence Rate: Alabama– 2.63% Lowest Prevalence Rate: California -- 0.48%
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Terms Used to Describe Students with Mental Retardation The term, “mental retardation,” is viewed as a negative label by many even though it replaced earlier, more negative labels. Less negative terms used to describe this population are: Intellectually impaired Educationally disabled
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 History of Mental Retardation Many positive changes have occurred in the treatment of individuals with mental retardation in the late twentieth century. These changes include: Movement away from restricted, sometimes abusive settings Positive shifts in public attitudes Improved services and supports
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Common Components in Definitions of Mental Retardation Significantly Below Average Intelligence Adaptive Behavior Developmental Period
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 “Mental retardation refers to significantly subaverage intellectual functioning resulting in or associated with concurrent impairments in adaptive behavior and manifested before the developmental period” (p. 11) 1983 AAMR Definition
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Intellectual Functioning This part of the definition is intended as a broad summation of cognitive abilities (e.g., capacity to learn, solve problems, think abstractly, etc.). Operationally, it has been reduced to performance on an intelligence test. “Significantly below average” in the AAMR definition is an upper level intelligence quotient of 70 to 75. IQ alone is not sufficient for a diagnosis of mental retardation.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Adaptive Behavior Adaptive behavior represents the degree to which the individual meets: “the standards of maturation, learning, personal independence, and/or social responsibility that are expected for his or her age level and cultural group” (Grossman, 1983, p. 11).
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Developmental Period The developmental period typically is defined as the period of time between conception and 18 years of age. Below-average intellectual functioning and impairments in adaptive behavior must appear during this period in order for an individual to be considered to have mental retardation.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 1992 AAMR Definition (Luckasson et al., 1992 ) “Mental retardation refers to substantial limitations in present functioning. It is manifested by significantly subaverage intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with related limitations in two or more of the following applicable adaptive skill areas: communication, self-care, home-living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure, and work. Mental retardation begins before the age of 18.”
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 2002 AAMR Definition (Luckasson et al., 2002 ) “Mental retardation is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual,social, and practical adaptive skills. This disability originates before age 18. The following five assumptions are essential to the application of the stated definition of mental retardation…
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Five Assumptions in the 2002 AAMR Definition Limitations in present functioning must be considered within the context of community environments typical of the individual’s age peers and culture. Valid assessment considers cultural and linguistic diversity as well as differences in communication, sensory, motor, and behavioral factors. Within an individual, limitations often coexist with strengths. An important purpose of describing limitations is to develop a profile of needed supports. With appropriate personalized supports over a sustained period, the life functioning of the person with mental retardation generally will improve.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Historical Classification (Grossman, 1983) Mild Mental Retardation Moderate Mental Retardation Severe Mental Retardation Profound Mental Retardation
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Archaic Terminology “Educable” Mentally Retarded “Trainable” Mentally Retarded These terms are inherently stereotypical and prejudicial.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Classification by Levels of Support (Luckasson et al., 2002) Classification is not derived from levels of disability or deficit, but rather from needed levels of support. This classification focuses on needs rather than deficits. “Supports are resources and strategies that aim to promote the development, education, interests, and personal well-being of a person and that enhance individual functioning” (Luckasson et al., 2002, p. 151).
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Levels of Support Intermittent Support Limited Support Extensive Support Pervasive Support
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Trends in Prevalence Estimates Today, 1.15% of school-age children are identified as mentally retarded. This figure represents a significant change from earlier periods when the national school prevalence for mental retardation was about 3%. Of those identified as mentally retarded, approximately 60% might be viewed as mildly retarded. The remainder have more severe disabilities.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Students who are African American are 2.4 times more likely to be identified as having mild mental retardation than their non-African American peers. This overrepresentation has been a controversial issue for many years in the field of mental retardation. Overrepresentation
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Causes of Mental Retardation There are hundreds of known causes of mental retardation. In many cases, however, the causes are unknown.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 General Characteristics Gender (more boys are identified as mentally retarded) Socioeconomic and Family Patterns (a disproportionate number come from single parent families and low income homes)
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Significant Learning Domains that are Problematic for Students with Mental Retardation o Attention o Use of Mediational Strategies o Memory o Motivational Considerations o Language Development o Academic Development o Generalization Learning o Cognitive Development
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Identification, Assessment, and Eligibility The challenges of accurate identification, assessment, and eligibility criterion procedures have been problematic in the field of mental of mental retardation for many years.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Where are Students with Mental Retardation Educated? Students with mental retardation are the individuals with disabilities least likely to have been included in general education classrooms. During the 1998-1999 school year: 13.7% were served in regular classes for at least 79% of the day 29.2% were served outside of regular classes between 21% and 60% of the school day. 51% were placed in special education programs for at least 61% of the day. 5.9% were served in alternative settings. The trend since 1992 has been toward an increase in general education and resource placements.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Transition Considerations U.S. Department of Education (2001) exit data: 41.7% graduated with a diploma 22.2% graduated with a certificate of completion 4.7% “aged” out of education 5.8% returned to regular education. 0.78% died 12.5% moved and were not known to continue their education 24.9% dropped out This means that about half of all students with mental retardation completed school with either a diploma or certificate
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Post-School Outcomes Of students with mental retardation who went through special education, less than half were working or involved in training programs Only 21% were living independently 30 months after secondary school.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Factors that Influence Post-School Success Ability to demonstrate personal and social behaviors appropriate to the workplace Quality of transition programming The challenges if the workplace of the future Increased leisure time
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Essential Features of Transition Transition programs must start early and planning must be comprehensive. Decisions must balance what is ideal with what is possible. Active and meaningful student participation and family involvement is essential. Supports are beneficial and used by everyone. Community-based instructional experiences have a major impact on learning. The transition planning process should be viewed as a capacity-building activity. Transition planning is needed by all students.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Primary Goals for Individuals with Mental Retardation Productive Employment Independence and Self- Sufficiency Life Skills Competence Opportunity to Participate Successfully within the School and Community
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Teaching Employment Skills Building students’ career awareness Helping students to see how academic content relates to applied areas Training in specific job skills
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Facilitating Independence and Economic Self-Sufficiency Creation of a climate of empowerment Empowerment includes: A Sense of Personal Control Self-Esteem Sense of Belonging to a Group Self-Determination
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Teaching Life Skills Life skills include: Use of community resources Health and safety skills Home and family activities Social and interpersonal skills Participation in the community as a citizen
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Teaching Social Skills An effective model should address: Social Affect (appearance to others) Social Skills (specific behaviors that are central to interactions) Social Cognition (understanding and being able to respond appropriately to various social situations)
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Facilitating Successful Community Involvement A starting point is the inclusion of students with mental retardation in general education classrooms. This inclusion provides students with instruction and training for success in subsequent inclusive community activities.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 General Considerations for Inclusion A key to including students with mental retardation in general education is providing necessary and appropriate supports. Supported educated assumes that individuals should be maintained in inclusive settings to the maximum degree possible and supported in these settings to ensure successful learning. Supports include: Natural supports Support Services Technical supports
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Providing Supports in General Education Classrooms Supports should allow students with mental retardation in inclusive classrooms to access the general education curriculum. To help students access the general education curriculum, decisions must be made about: The use of assistive technology Development of curriculum adaptations Augmentation of the curriculum Availability of curricular alternatives
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Classroom Adaptations Ensure attention to relevant task demands Teach ways to learn content while teaching content itself Offer opportunities for active involvement in the learning process Focus on content that is meaningful Provide training that crosses multiple learning and environmental contexts
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Cognitively-Oriented Instructional Methods Learning Strategies Metacognitive Strategies Cognitive-Behavior Modification
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Curricular Adaptations Focus should be on relevant and meaningful curricular content that students can master and apply to their lives Focus should be on the subsequent environments for which students will prepare
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Assistive Technology Can enhance classroom adaptations Should be used to enhance: Acquisition of new skills Development of fluency and proficiency Maintenance of skills over time Generalization to new situations
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Strategies for Promoting Inclusive Practices Creation of a sense of community in the school and classroom Supported education Helping students develop a sense of belonging Facilitating friendships
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Final Thoughts Students with mental retardation require a comprehensive, broad-based curriculum Most effective programs will provide: Appropriate academic instruction Address social skills, life skills, and transition skills Incorporate a “life” inclusion philosophy
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