Presentation on theme: "ALTERNATIVE FUELS INTRODUCTION ALTERNATIVE FUELS"— Presentation transcript:
1 ALTERNATIVE FUELS INTRODUCTION ALTERNATIVE FUELS Biofuels (Biodiesel, Bioethanol, Biogas)Natural GasHybrid Electric VehiclesADVANTAGES OF ALTERNATIVE FUELSSHOW CASES
2 INTRODUCTIONIn the EU, transport is responsible for an estimated 21% of all greenhouse gas emissions.Fossil oil is the main energy source with a 98% contribution to all transport fuels.Drivers can greatly reduce these impacts:choosing cleaner vehiclesdriving more efficientlyIn most cases these measures will lead to:financial savingsenvironmental benefitsMore information
3 WHAT ARE BIOFUELS? Biofuels (Biodiesel, Bioethanol, Biogas ) Biofuels: fuels from a variety of sources of biomass:plant materialscertain types of cropsrecycled or waste vegetable oilsBiodiesel/bioethanol:They can replace conventional diesel/petrol entirely respectivelyThey can be blended with diesel/petrol in different proportions:Engines require no modification to use 5% blendsFor biodiesel, blends up to 20-30% are possible, but it invalidates many manufacturers’ warrantiesBioethanol can be used as:E85 (85% ethanol, 15% petrol) in Flexible Fuel VehiclesAdditive ETBE (ethyl-tertio-butyl-ether) up to 15%Sunfuel/Synfuel:Gas to liquid fuels: from gasified biomass or biogas via Fischer Tropsch Synthesis.
4 WHY PROMOTE BIOFUELS?Transport biofuels have risen to prominence in recent years. The main reasons for promoting biofuels are:To contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions;To contribute to the security of energy supply;To promote a greater use of renewable energy;To diversify agricultural economies into new markets.To promote the used of biofuels, many member states are relying on fuel tax exemptions.
5 MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT BIOFUELS SUGRE Clarifying MisconceptionsWhat may FAME be made of in Europe?Animal fatUsed cooking oilSunflowerCottonThe only wrong answer is Cotton.There are a wide variety of feedstocks that can be used to produce biodiesel. Since the type of feedstock heavily influences the fuel characteristics, differences in quality and emissions are common.
6 BIOFUELS: BIODIESEL, BIOETHANOL Internal AnalysisStrengthslow price/tax exemptionsdomestic resourceslow cost or adapting refuelling stationsblending optionsWeaknesseslimited offer of OEM vehiclesscarcity of refuelling stations
7 BIOFUELS: BIODIESEL, BIOETHANOL External AnalysisOpportunitiesglobal/local global warming concernslong term increase of petroleum pricesChallengesavailability of OEM productsstable regulatory and fiscal environmentbroad public marketing
8 IS NATURAL GAS AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL? Natural Gas as an alternative fuel: clean burning qualities of the product.It has to be stored in a compressed state (CNG) or in a liquefied state (LNG):Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG).Methane is the major part of Natural Gas.Filling stations are expensive, but fuel costs are low. For fleet owners with a large share of “home based” vehicles it is feasible to purchase an own filling point, and for smaller fleets there might be possibilities in joint purchase and joint use of a filling point, or to use one from a nearby fleet.
9 MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT NATURAL GAS SUGRE Clarifying MisconceptionsIs Natural Gas lighter than air at ambient conditions?Yes, alwaysOnly in warm climatesNo, neverThe right answer is yes.This means that natural gas would not accumulate on the floor level in case of leakage, which is important when we use natural gas vehicles in underground zones.
10 METHANE: NATURAL GAS, BIOGAS Internal AnalysisStrengthslow price/tax exceptionslow emissionsdomestic resources (in some countries) may be blended into the CNG networkWeaknesseshigh cost of filling (refuelling) stationslimited offer of OEM vehicles (in some segments)scarcity of refuelling stationshigher initial cost of vehicles (partly)
11 METHANE: NATURAL GAS, BIOGAS External AnalysisOpportunitiesglobal/local environmental concernsglobal/local global warming concerns (for biogas)long term increase of petroleum pricesChallengesavailability of OEM productsstable regulatory and fiscal environmentbroad public marketingtechnical development of competing diesel engines (emissions)
12 WHAT ARE HEVs? Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) Hybrid car: battery engine and internal combustion engine.Hybrids are sold at a premium compared to their non-hybrid equivalents but can bring large fuel savings in start and stop operation (city traffic). In most EU countries hybrids qualify for purchase grants and/or reduced taxes.Significant potential to reduce emissions for start and stop traffic.For high mileage users they can make sense in economic terms.Advantages in terms of access to inner cities.
13 MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT HEVs SUGRE Clarifying MisconceptionsDoes a serial hybrid vehicle need a gearbox?Yes, alwaysNo, optionalWith in wheel motors onlyThe right answer is no.Caused by the high torque of electric motors, hybrid electric vehicles are easy to drive in urban environments and off-road.
14 HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES Internal AnalysisStrengthsfuel savings in stop and go trafficconversion path exists from existing ICE concepts (micro hybrids)same refuelling infrastructure (except for plug in hybrids)Weaknesseslimited offer of OEM vehicles (in some segments)high initial cost of vehicles
15 HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES External AnalysisOpportunitiesglobal/local environmental concernsglobal/local global warming concernslong term increase of petroleum pricesChallengesavailability of OEM products (especially for city cars)stable regulatory and fiscal environment (zero emission zones favour plug in hybrids)technical development of ICE (efficiency)
16 ADVANTAGES OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS More than 50 % of the conventional fleet owners will purchase alternative propulsion vehicles.Measures regarding the following aspects are ranged by fleet operators as very positive and important:Socio-ecological aspectsFinancial and policy aspectsCompany imageGeneral advantages for the ecologyCuriosity towards new technologySupport through local networksCompetitive advantagesNational legislation and policyLocal legislation and policy
17 SHOW CASES Use of biofuel Use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Alternative fuel use in the Municipal Transport Company (EMT) of Madrid (Spain)Use of biofuel209 vehicles use biodiesel obtained from rapeseed and sunflower and 5 use bioethanolUse of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)202 CNG vehicles and 62 refuelling postsHybrid systems (diesel – electric)20 busesUse of Fuel cellsH2 Refuelling station able to fill the tank of the bus in 15 minutes and 350 bar pressureMore information
18 HOW SUGRE MIGHT HELP YOU? Offering Site Visits Twice a Year with WorkshopHolding Training Workshopsin certain cities, presenting strengths, weaknesses and opportunities for alternative fuels and alternative propulsiongoing beyond biodiesel including PPO/SVO pure plant oil, E95 ethanol in diesel electric, hybrid electric, battery electric..Training Materials Downloadat