Presentation on theme: "Condensed from pages of Warriner’s Handbook"— Presentation transcript:
1 Condensed from pages 294-309 of Warriner’s Handbook Comma NotesCondensed from pages of Warriner’s Handbook
2 Rule 1 Use commas to separate items in a series. *A series consists of three or more items in a row and can include words, phrases, and short independent clauses
3 Examples Words Phrases Clauses The engine rattled, coughed, and stalled.PhrasesThere were fingerprints at the top, on the sides, and on the bottom.ClausesWe sang, we danced, we ate dinner, and we played trivia games.
4 Rule 2Use a comma to separate two or more adjectives that come before a noun.Examples:My spaniel is a fat, sassy puppy.The long, silver train slowly pulled into the station.
5 Rule 2If an adjective precedes a compound noun (an adjective and noun that are closely linked) there is no need to include a comma after the first adjective.Examples:The warm French bread tasted great with the onion soup.A huge horned owl lives in those woods.
6 Rule 3Use a comma before the coordinating conjunctions for, and, nor, but, or, yet, or so when they join independent clauses in a compound sentence. Hint: FanboysExamples:Tamisha offered me a ticket, and I accepted.They had been working very hard, but they didn’t seem especially tired.
7 Rule 3When the independent clauses are very short and there is no chance of misunderstanding, the comma before and, but, or or is sometimes omitted.Example:Come with us or meet us there.Always us a comma before for, nor, so or yet when joining independent clauses.Example: I was tired, yet I stayed
8 Rule 4Use commas to set off an expression that interrupts a sentence.
9 Rule 4 IUse commas to set off nonessential participial phrases and nonessential subordinate clauses.A nonessential (or nonrestrictive) phrase or clause adds information that is not needed to understand the basic meaning of the sentence. Such a phrase or clause can be omitted without changing the main idea of the sentence.
10 Rule 4 I Examples: My sister, listening to her radio, did not hear me. Paul, thrilled by the applause, took a bow.The Wizard of Oz, which I saw again last week, is my favorite movie.I reported on Secret of the Andes, which was written by Ann Nolan Clark.
11 Rule 4 IDo not set off an essential (or restrictive) phrase or clause. Since such a phrase or clause tells which one(s), it cannot be omitted without changing the basic meaning of the sentence.Examples:A bowl made by Maria Martinez is a collector’s item.The man who tells Navajo folk tales is Mr. Platero.
12 Rule 4 IIUse commas to set off nonessential appositives and nonessential appositive phrases.An appositive is a noun or a pronoun used to identify or describe another noun or pronoun.
13 Rule 4 IIExamples:My oldest sister, Alicia, will be at the basketball game.Jamaica, a popular island for tourists, is in the Caribbean Sea.May I introduce you to Vernon, my cousin from Jamaica?
14 Rule 4 IIDo not use commas to set off an appositive that is essential to the meaning of a sentence.Examples:My sister Alicia is at basketball practice.The planet Mercury is closer to the Sun than any other planet in our solar system.
15 Rule 4 IIIUse commas to set off words that are used in direct address.Examples:Ben, please answer the doorbell.Mom says she needs you, Francine.
16 Rule 4 IV Use commas to set off parenthetical expressions. A parenthetical expression is a side remark that adds information or shows a relationship between ideas.Examples:Carl, on the contrary, prefers soccer to baseball.To tell the truth, Jan is one of my best friends. Common parenthetical expressions include for example, however, in fact, nevertheless, on the contrary, and on the other hand.
17 Rule 5Use a comma after certain introductory elements.
18 Rule 5 IUse a comma after yes, no, or any mild exclamation such as well or why at the beginning of the sentence.Examples:Yes, you may borrow my bicycle.Why, it’s Lena!Well, I think you are wrong.
19 Rule 5 II Use a comma after an introductory participial phrase. Examples:Beginning a new school year, Zelda felt somewhat nervous.Greeted with applause from the fans, Rashid ran out onto the field.
20 Rule 5 IIIUse a comma after two or more introductory prepositional phrases.Examples:At the bottom of the hill, you will see the field.Until the end of the song, just keep strumming that cord.Sometimes a comma is not necessary after a short prepositional phrase. Be sure to use a comma when it is necessary to make the meaning of the sentence clear.In the morning they left.In the morning, sunlight streamed through the window.
21 Rule 5 IV Use a comma after an introductory adverb clause. Examples:After I finish my homework, I will go to the park.When you go to the store, could you please pick up a gallon of milk?An adverb clause that comes at the end of a sentence does not usually need a comma.Example:I will go to the park after I finish my homework.
22 Rule 6Use commas in certain conventional situations.
23 Rule 6 I Use commas to separate items in dates and addresses. Examples:She was born on January 26, 1988, in Cheshire, Connecticut.A letter dated November 26, 1888, was found in the old house at 980 West street, Davenport, Iowa, yesterday.
24 Rule 6 IIUse a comma after the salutation of a personal letter and after the closing of any letter.
25 *Condensed from pages 294-309 of Warriner’s Handbook Work Cited*Condensed from pages of Warriner’s HandbookWarriner, John E. “Commas.” Warriner’s Handbook: First Course. Austin: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Print.